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Cells 2018, 7(11), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7110213

Proteomic Signatures of Clostridium difficile Stressed with Metronidazole, Vancomycin, or Fidaxomicin

1
Institute of Microbiology, Department of Microbial Proteomics, University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 8, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
2
Institute of Microbiology, Department of Microbial Physiology and Molecular Biology, University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 8, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Stress Response in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

The anaerobic pathogen Clostridium difficile is of growing significance for the health care system due to its increasing incidence and mortality. As C. difficile infection is both supported and treated by antibiotics, a deeper knowledge on how antimicrobial agents affect the physiology of this important pathogen may help to understand and prevent the development and spreading of antibiotic resistant strains. As the proteomic response of a cell to stress aims at counteracting the harmful effects of this stress, it can be expected that the pattern of a pathogen’s responses to antibiotic treatment will be dependent on the antibiotic mechanism of action. Hence, every antibiotic treatment is expected to result in a specific proteomic signature characterizing its mode of action. In the study presented here, the proteomic response of C. difficile 630∆erm to vancomycin, metronidazole, and fidaxomicin stress was investigated on the level of protein abundance and protein synthesis based on 2D PAGE. The quantification of 425 proteins of C. difficile allowed the deduction of proteomic signatures specific for each drug treatment. Indeed, these proteomic signatures indicate very specific cellular responses to each antibiotic with only little overlap of the responses. Whereas signature proteins for vancomycin stress fulfil various cellular functions, the proteomic signature of metronidazole stress is characterized by alterations of proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and protein degradation as well as in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In contrast, proteins differentially expressed after fidaxomicin treatment can be assigned to amino acid biosynthesis, transcription, cell motility, and the cell envelope functions. Notably, the data provided by this study hint also at so far unknown antibiotic detoxification mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridiodes difficile; antibiotics; proteomics; protein synthesis; 2D PAGE Clostridiodes difficile; antibiotics; proteomics; protein synthesis; 2D PAGE
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Maaß, S.; Otto, A.; Albrecht, D.; Riedel, K.; Trautwein-Schult, A.; Becher, D. Proteomic Signatures of Clostridium difficile Stressed with Metronidazole, Vancomycin, or Fidaxomicin. Cells 2018, 7, 213.

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