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Article

The Transcriptional Adaptor Protein ADA3a Modulates Flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana

1
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
National Plant Phenomics Centre, Gogerddan Campus, Institute of Biological, Environmental, and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3EE, UK
3
Postgraduate Program Studies “Applications of Biology—Biotechnology, Molecular and Microbial Analysis of Food and Products”, Faculty of Science, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Biology Department, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA 18104, USA
5
Natural Products Research Centre of Excellence (NatPro-AUTh), Center of Interdisciplinary Research and Innovation of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (CIRI-AUTh), 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keqiang Wu
Cells 2021, 10(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040904
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 11 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating Plant Development)
Histone acetylation is directly related to gene expression. In yeast, the acetyltransferase general control nonderepressible-5 (GCN5) targets histone H3 and associates with transcriptional co-activators alteration/deficiency in activation-2 (ADA2) and alteration/deficiency in activation-3 (ADA3) in complexes like SAGA. Arabidopsis thaliana has two genes encoding proteins, designated ADA3a and ADA3b, that correspond to yeast ADA3. We investigated the role of ADA3a and ADA3b in regulating gene expression during flowering time. Specifically, we found that knock out mutants ada3a-2 and the double mutant ada3a-2 ada3b-2 lead to early flowering compared to the wild type plants under long day (LD) conditions and after moving plants from short days to LD. Consistent with ADA3a being a repressor of floral initiation, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression was increased in ada3a mutants. In contrast, other genes involved in multiple pathways leading to floral transition, including FT repressors, players in GA signaling, and members of the SPL transcriptional factors, displayed reduced expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that ADA3a affects the histone H3K14 acetylation levels in SPL3, SPL5, RGA, GAI, and SMZ loci. In conclusion, ADA3a is involved in floral induction through a GCN5-containing complex that acetylates histone H3 in the chromatin of flowering related genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADA2; ADA3; GCN5; flowering; histone acetylation; gene expression; H3K14Ac; SPL; DELLA; FT ADA2; ADA3; GCN5; flowering; histone acetylation; gene expression; H3K14Ac; SPL; DELLA; FT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poulios, S.; Dadarou, D.; Gavriilidis, M.; Mougiou, N.; Kargios, N.; Maliori, V.; Hark, A.T.; Doonan, J.H.; Vlachonasios, K.E. The Transcriptional Adaptor Protein ADA3a Modulates Flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cells 2021, 10, 904. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040904

AMA Style

Poulios S, Dadarou D, Gavriilidis M, Mougiou N, Kargios N, Maliori V, Hark AT, Doonan JH, Vlachonasios KE. The Transcriptional Adaptor Protein ADA3a Modulates Flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cells. 2021; 10(4):904. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040904

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poulios, Stylianos, Despoina Dadarou, Maxim Gavriilidis, Niki Mougiou, Nestoras Kargios, Vasileia Maliori, Amy T. Hark, John H. Doonan, and Konstantinos E. Vlachonasios. 2021. "The Transcriptional Adaptor Protein ADA3a Modulates Flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana" Cells 10, no. 4: 904. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040904

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