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Article

Metabolomic Variation Aligns with Two Geographically Distinct Subpopulations of Brachypodium Distachyon before and after Drought Stress

1
Plant Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Group, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
2
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, UK
3
National Plant Phenomics Centre, Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB, UK
4
Tekirdag Anatolian High School, 59030 Suleymanpasa, Tekirdag, Turkey
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Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, 59030 Suleymanpasa, Tekirdag, Turkey
6
College of Agronomy, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Jinzhong 030801, Shanxi, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Rinalducci
Cells 2021, 10(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030683
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 19 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Plant Research)
Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is a non-domesticated model grass that has been used to assess population level genomic variation. We have previously established a collection of 55 Brachypodium accessions that were sampled to reflect five different climatic regions of Turkey; designated 1a, 1c, 2, 3 and 4. Genomic and methylomic variation differentiated the collection into two subpopulations designated as coastal and central (respectively from regions 1a, 1c and the other from 2, 3 and 4) which were linked to environmental variables such as relative precipitation. Here, we assessed how far genomic variation would be reflected in the metabolomes and if this could be linked to an adaptive trait. Metabolites were extracted from eight-week-old seedlings from each accession and assessed using flow infusion high-resolution mass spectrometry (FIE-HRMS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the derived metabolomes differentiated between samples from coastal and central subpopulations. The major sources of variation between seedling from the coastal and central subpopulations were identified. The central subpopulation was typified by significant increases in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Coastal subpopulation exhibited elevated levels of the auxin, indolacetic acid and rhamnose. The metabolomes of the seedling were also determined following the imposition of drought stress for seven days. The central subpopulation exhibited a metabolomic shift in response to drought, but no significant changes were seen in the coastal one. The drought responses in the central subpopulation were typified by changes in amino acids, increasing the glutamine that could be functioning as a stress signal. There were also changes in sugars that were likely to be an osmotic counter to drought, and changes in bioenergetic metabolism. These data indicate that genomic variation in our Turkish Brachypodium collection is largely reflected as distinctive metabolomes (“metabolotypes”) through which drought tolerance might be mediated. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brachypodium distachyon; metabolome; metabolotypes; drought; osmolytes; amino acids; auxin Brachypodium distachyon; metabolome; metabolotypes; drought; osmolytes; amino acids; auxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Skalska, A.; Beckmann, M.; Corke, F.; Savas Tuna, G.; Tuna, M.; Doonan, J.H.; Hasterok, R.; Mur, L.A.J. Metabolomic Variation Aligns with Two Geographically Distinct Subpopulations of Brachypodium Distachyon before and after Drought Stress. Cells 2021, 10, 683. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030683

AMA Style

Skalska A, Beckmann M, Corke F, Savas Tuna G, Tuna M, Doonan JH, Hasterok R, Mur LAJ. Metabolomic Variation Aligns with Two Geographically Distinct Subpopulations of Brachypodium Distachyon before and after Drought Stress. Cells. 2021; 10(3):683. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030683

Chicago/Turabian Style

Skalska, Aleksandra, Manfred Beckmann, Fiona Corke, Gulsemin Savas Tuna, Metin Tuna, John H. Doonan, Robert Hasterok, and Luis A.J. Mur. 2021. "Metabolomic Variation Aligns with Two Geographically Distinct Subpopulations of Brachypodium Distachyon before and after Drought Stress" Cells 10, no. 3: 683. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10030683

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