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Article

Developmental Morphology and Biomass Yield of Upland and Lowland Switchgrass Ecotypes Grown in Iowa

1
Department of Agronomy, University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
2
Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Department of Horticulture, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2018, 8(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8050061
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forage and Bioenergy Crops)
Sustainable development of the bioenergy industry will depend upon the amount and quality of bioenergy feedstock produced. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop but critical information is lacking for improved management, growth, and development simulation model calibration. A field study was conducted near Ames, IA during 2012–2013 with the objective to evaluate upland (“Cave-in-Rock”, ‘Trailblazer’ and ‘Blackwell’) and lowland (“Kanlow” and “Alamo”) switchgrass ecotypes for harvest timing on morphology (i.e., phenology, leaf area index (LAI), and biomass yield). The experiment used a randomized complete block design, with three upland and two lowland varieties harvested at six dates annually. In both years, delaying harvest to later maturity increased biomass yield; lowland cultivars produced greater biomass yield (6.15 tons ha−1) than upland ecotypes (5.10 tons ha−1). Lowland ecotypes had delayed reproductive development compared with upland ecotypes. At the end of both growing seasons, upland ecotypes had greater mean stage count (MSC) than lowland ecotypes. “Cave-in-Rock” had greatest MSC and LAI, but did not produce the greatest biomass. Relationships were nonlinear between MSC and biomass yield, with significant cultivar–year interaction. The relationship between biomass yield and MSC will be useful for improving switchgrass, including cultivar selection, fertilizer application, and optimum harvest time. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panicum virgatum L.; biomass yield; biomass harvest; grass staging; grass morphology; switchgrass development; leaf area index Panicum virgatum L.; biomass yield; biomass harvest; grass staging; grass morphology; switchgrass development; leaf area index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aurangzaib, M.; Moore, K.J.; Lenssen, A.W.; Archontoulis, S.V.; Heaton, E.A.; Fei, S. Developmental Morphology and Biomass Yield of Upland and Lowland Switchgrass Ecotypes Grown in Iowa. Agronomy 2018, 8, 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8050061

AMA Style

Aurangzaib M, Moore KJ, Lenssen AW, Archontoulis SV, Heaton EA, Fei S. Developmental Morphology and Biomass Yield of Upland and Lowland Switchgrass Ecotypes Grown in Iowa. Agronomy. 2018; 8(5):61. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8050061

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aurangzaib, Muhammad, Kenneth J. Moore, Andrew W. Lenssen, Sotirios V. Archontoulis, Emily A. Heaton, and Shuizhang Fei. 2018. "Developmental Morphology and Biomass Yield of Upland and Lowland Switchgrass Ecotypes Grown in Iowa" Agronomy 8, no. 5: 61. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8050061

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