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Agronomy 2018, 8(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy8050062

Genotype-by-Environment Interaction and Yield Stability of Maize Single Cross Hybrids Developed from Tropical Inbred Lines

1
Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), P.O. Box 2123 Yaounde, Cameroon
2
West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI), College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, PMB 30 Legon, Accra, Ghana
3
Department of Agronomy, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Management Factor Contributions to Maize Yield)
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Abstract

Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important nutrients required for high productivity of the maize plant. In most farmers’ fields in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is low availability of N in the soil mainly due to continuous cultivation of the land, crop residues removal, little or no application of fertilizers and rapid leaching. There is a need to develop low N tolerant and adapted maize genotypes. Evaluation of maize genotypes under different nitrogen conditions would therefore be useful in identifying genotypes that combine stability with high yield potential for both stress and non-stress environment. Eighty maize hybrids were evaluated at Mbalmayo and Nkolbisson in Cameroon, during 2012 and 2013 minor and major cropping seasons across 11 environments under low and high N conditions. The objectives of the study were: (i) to determine the effect of genotype x environment interaction (G × E) on grain yield and yield stability of single cross maize hybrids across low N and optimum N environments and (ii) to identify genotypes to recommend for further use in the breeding program. Yield data of 80 hybrids were analyzed initially and the analysis of 20 best performing genotypes was further performed for a better visualization and interpretation of the results. Combined analysis of variance showed highly significant G × E effects for grain yield. The GGE biplot analysis divided the study area into three mega environments: one related to the major cropping season while the two others were related to the minor cropping season. The grain yield of the 20 highest yielding hybrids ranged from 4484.7 to 5198.3 kg ha−1. Hybrid 1368 × 87036 was the highest yielding in the minor season while the most outstanding hybrid, TL-11-A-1642-5 × 87036 was the best for the major season. The latter hybrid showed the potential for production across environments and should therefore be further tested in multiple environments to confirm consistency of its high yield performance and stability, and to facilitate its release as a commercial hybrid. High yielding but not stable hybrids across environments could be recommended for the specific environments where they performed well. View Full-Text
Keywords: Maize; hybrids; genotype × environment; stability Maize; hybrids; genotype × environment; stability
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Mafouasson, H.N.A.; Gracen, V.; Yeboah, M.A.; Ntsomboh-Ntsefong, G.; Tandzi, L.N.; Mutengwa, C.S. Genotype-by-Environment Interaction and Yield Stability of Maize Single Cross Hybrids Developed from Tropical Inbred Lines. Agronomy 2018, 8, 62.

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