Next Article in Journal
Cefotaxime Mediated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
Recent Progress in Modification Strategies of Nanocellulose-Based Aerogels for Oil Absorption Application
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Au Plasmonic Material on Poly M-Toluidine for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation from Sewage Water
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Critical Review on Wood-Based Polymer Composites: Processing, Properties, and Prospects
Article

Properties Enhancement Nano Coconut Shell Filled in Packaging Plastic Waste Bionanocomposite

1
Physics Department, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
2
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pavlo Bekhta
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040772
Received: 30 December 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2022 / Accepted: 11 February 2022 / Published: 16 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Eco-Friendly Wood-Based Composites II)
Plastic waste recycling has been proposed as a long-term solution to eliminate land and marine deposit. This study proposed a new approach to fabricate biocomposites of nano-sized fillers and low matrix compositions with a great performance by using plastic packaging waste different from the conventional biocomposite. Coconut shell, an agricultural waste, was bonden with waste plastic to form a biocomposite with a coupling agent. The optimum percentage composition and the effect of coconut shell ball milling time on the properties of the biocomposite were studied with density, thickness swelling, porosity flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the optimum performance of biocomposite was obtained at 30/70 (wt.%) plastic waste to coconut shell ratio, where 70 wt.% was the highest coconut shell composition that can be achieved. Furthermore, for 30 wt.% of polypropylene (low matrix), the performance of biocomposite improved significantly with milling time due to enhanced interaction between filler and matrix. As the milling time was increased from 0 to 40 h, the density increased from 0.9 to 1.02 g/cm3; thickness swelling decreased from 3.4 to 1.8%; porosity decreased from 7.0 to 3.0%; flexural strength increased from 8.19 to 12.26 MPa; flexural modulus increased from 1.67 to 2.87 GPa, and compressive strength increased from 16.00 to 27.20 MPa. The degradation temperature of biocomposite also increased as the milling duration increased from 0 to 40 h. The melting temperature increased significantly from 160 to 170 °C as the milling duration increased from 0 to 40 h. The depolymerisation occurred at 350 °C, which also increased with milling duration. This study revealed that the performance of biocomposite improved significantly with a lower percentage matrix and fillernanoparticle rather than increasing the percentage of the matrix. The nanocomposite can be used as a panelboard in industrial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocomposite; mechanical properties; physical properties; polypropylene; thermal properties biocomposite; mechanical properties; physical properties; polypropylene; thermal properties
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ismail, I.; Aini, Q.; Jalil, Z.; Olaiya, N.G.; Mursal, M.; Abdullah, C.K.; H.P.S., A.K. Properties Enhancement Nano Coconut Shell Filled in Packaging Plastic Waste Bionanocomposite. Polymers 2022, 14, 772. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040772

AMA Style

Ismail I, Aini Q, Jalil Z, Olaiya NG, Mursal M, Abdullah CK, H.P.S. AK. Properties Enhancement Nano Coconut Shell Filled in Packaging Plastic Waste Bionanocomposite. Polymers. 2022; 14(4):772. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040772

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismail, Ismail, Quratul Aini, Zulkarnain Jalil, Niyi G. Olaiya, Mursal Mursal, C.K. Abdullah, and Abdul K. H.P.S. 2022. "Properties Enhancement Nano Coconut Shell Filled in Packaging Plastic Waste Bionanocomposite" Polymers 14, no. 4: 772. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040772

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop