To reinforce extensively prepared cavities, different types of fiber reinforcement are utilized. Polyethylene and glass fibers are the most commonly used fibers in that purpose; each type has its own advantages over the other type. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review the literature to evaluate and compare the influence of different fiber reinforcement types on the performance of posterior large composite restorations. Two independent authors performed a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, and a manual search for cross references until July 2021. Authors selected only studies that contain comparisons between glass (continuous or short) and polyethylene (woven) fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) in posterior cavities of human teeth, and that report the effect of fiber inclusion on fracture resistance, microleakage, and marginal adaptation of restorations. A number of 2711 potentially relevant articles were obtained from the electronic search. After extensive assessment, 2696 articles were ineligible to be included in the review, and only 15 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four out of nine studies, which tested the fracture resistance of FRC restorations, revealed similar performance of the glass and polyethylene fibers. The rest of the studies (n
= 5) revealed statistically significant differences between the two types of fiber reinforcement, with the majority showed superior reinforcement of glass fiber. Moreover, the reviewed studies revealed that, using fibers within the composite restorations would reduce the microleakage and improve the marginal adaptation of the restoration regardless of the fiber type. FRCs tend to strengthen the restorations of structurally compromised teeth and improve their performance compared to plain composite restorations.
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