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Open AccessArticle

Validation of Nanoparticle Response to the Sound Pressure Effect during the Drug-Delivery Process

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Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Computers and Communications Department, College of Engineering, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa 35712, Egypt
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Radiological Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
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Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia
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Laboratory of Electromechanical Systems (LASEM), National Engineering School of Sfax, University of Sfax, Route de Soukra km 4, Sfax 3038, Tunisia
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Nabeul’s Foundation Institute for Engineering Studies, University of Carthage, IPEIN, Nabeul 8000, Tunisia
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Electronics and Information Technology Laboratory, University of Sfax, National Engineering School of Sfax, Sfax 3038, Tunisia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010186 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
Intravenous delivery is the fastest conventional method of delivering drugs to their targets in seconds, whereas intramuscular and subcutaneous injections provide a slower continuous delivery of drugs. In recent years, nanoparticle-based drug-delivery systems have gained considerable attention. During the progression of nanoparticles into the blood, the sound waves generated by the particles create acoustic pressure that affects the movement of nanoparticles. To overcome this issue, the impact of sound pressure levels on the development of nanoparticles was studied herein. In addition, a composite nanostructure was developed using different types of nanoscale substances to overcome the effect of sound pressure levels in the drug-delivery process. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed nanostructure based on a group of different nanoparticles. This study suggests five materials, namely, polyimide, acrylic plastic, Aluminum 3003-H18, Magnesium AZ31B, and polysilicon for the design of the proposed structure. The best results were obtained in the case of the movement of these molecules at lower frequencies. The performance of acrylic plastic is better than other materials; the sound pressure levels reached minimum values at frequencies of 1, 10, 20, and 60 nHz. Furthermore, an experimental setup was designed to validate the proposed idea using advanced biomedical imaging technologies. The experimental results demonstrate the possibilities of detecting, tracking, and evaluating the movement behaviors of nanoparticles. The experimental results also demonstrate that the lowest sound pressure levels were observed at lower frequency levels, thus proving the validity of the proposed computational model assumptions. The outcome of this study will pave the way to understand the interaction behaviors of nanoparticles with the surrounding biological environments, including the sound pressure effect, which could lead to the useof such an effect in facilitating directional and tactic movements of the micro- and nano-motors. View Full-Text
Keywords: sound pressure interaction; nanoparticles; drug delivery; composite nanostructures; acceleration; particle displacement sound pressure interaction; nanoparticles; drug delivery; composite nanostructures; acceleration; particle displacement
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Abbas, M.; Alqahtani, M.; Algahtani, A.; Kessentini, A.; Loukil, H.; Parayangat, M.; Ijyas, T.; Mohammed, A.W. Validation of Nanoparticle Response to the Sound Pressure Effect during the Drug-Delivery Process. Polymers 2020, 12, 186.

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