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Polymer Pen Lithography-Fabricated DNA Arrays for Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Unamplified Ganoderma Boninense DNA

1
Manchester Institute of Biotechnology and School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, UK
2
Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Biotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Physical Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Mansa Rd, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India.
Present address: Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK.
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030561
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithography with polymer stamp techniques)
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Abstract

There is an increasing demand for lithography methods to enable the fabrication of diagnostic devices for the biomedical and agri-food sectors. In this regard, scanning probe lithography methods have emerged as a possible approach for this purpose, as they are not only convenient, robust and accessible, but also enable the deposition of “soft” materials such as complex organic molecules and biomolecules. In this report, the use of polymer pen lithography for the fabrication of DNA oligonucleotide arrays is described, together with the application of the arrays for the sensitive and selective detection of Ganoderma boninense, a fungal pathogen of the oil palm. When used in a sandwich assay format with DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles, this system is able to generate a visually observable result in the presence of the target DNA. This assay is able to detect as little as 30 ng of Ganoderma-derived DNA without any pre-amplification and without the need for specialist laboratory equipment or training. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer pen lithography; sandwich assay; genomic DNA; visual and optical detection; Ganoderma boninense polymer pen lithography; sandwich assay; genomic DNA; visual and optical detection; Ganoderma boninense
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rani, E.; Mohshim, S.A.; Ahmad, M.Z.; Goodacre, R.; Alang Ahmad, S.A.; Wong, L.S. Polymer Pen Lithography-Fabricated DNA Arrays for Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Unamplified Ganoderma Boninense DNA. Polymers 2019, 11, 561.

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