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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Diabetes Potential of Water-Soluble Chitosan–Glucose Derivatives Produced by Maillard Reaction

1
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
3
Doctoral Program in Applied Sciences, College of Science, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
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Department of Science and Technology, Tay Nguyen University, Buon Ma Thuot 630000, Vietnam
5
Institute of Biotechnology and Environment, Tay Nguyen University, Buon Ma Thuot 630000, Vietnam
6
Life Science Development Center, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(10), 1714; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11101714
Received: 19 September 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications)
Chitosan-sugar derivatives demonstrate some useful biology activities (for example anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities). In this study, water-soluble chitosan–glucose derivatives (WSCGDs) were produced from a water-soluble chitosan hydrochloride (WSC) with 12.5 kDa of molecular weight and 24.05% of degree of acetylation (DA) via Maillard reaction with the heating temperatures of 100 °C and 121 °C. The Maillard reaction between WSC and glucose was investigated by measuring the absorbances at 420 nm and 294 nm, indicating that the reaction took place more effectively at 121 °C. All WSCGDs exhibited higher anti-oxidant activity than WSC, in which WSCGDs obtained at the treatment 121 °C for 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h expressed the highest ability (IC50 range from 1.90–1.05 mg/mL). Increased anti-α-amylase and anti-α-glucosidase activities were also observed in WSCGDs from the treatment at 121 °C. In detail, the highest IC50 values of anti-α-amylase activity were 18.02 mg/mL (121 °C, 3 h) and 18.37 mg/mL (121 °C, 4 h), whereas the highest IC50 values of anti-α-glucosidase activity were in range of 7.09–5.72 mg/mL (121 °C, for 1–4 h). According to the results, WSCGD obtained from 121 °C for 3 h was selected for further characterizing by high performance liquid chromatography size exclusion chromatography (HPLC SEC), colloid titration, FTIR, as well as 1H-NMR, indicating that the derivative of WSC and glucose was successfully synthesized with a molecular weight of 15.1 kDa and degree of substitution (DS) of 34.62 ± 2.78%. By expressing the excellent anti-oxidant and anti-diabetes activities, WSCGDs may have potential use in health food or medicine applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan–glucose derivatives; Maillard reaction; anti-oxidant; anti-α-amylase; anti-α-glucosidase; anti-diabetes chitosan–glucose derivatives; Maillard reaction; anti-oxidant; anti-α-amylase; anti-α-glucosidase; anti-diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, T.N.; Doan, C.T.; Nguyen, V.B.; Nguyen, A.D.; Wang, S.-L. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Diabetes Potential of Water-Soluble Chitosan–Glucose Derivatives Produced by Maillard Reaction. Polymers 2019, 11, 1714.

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