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Polymers 2018, 10(7), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070749

Synthesis of Polypyrrole Induced by [Fe(CN)6]3− and Redox Cycling of [Fe(CN)6]4−/[Fe(CN)6]3−

1
Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius, Lithuania
2
NanoTechnas, Center of Nanotechnology and Materials Science, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius, Lithuania
3
Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, State Research Institute, Sauletekio Ave. 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "ECIS 2017")
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Abstract

Chemical synthesis of the conducting polymer polypyrrole induced by [Fe(CN)6]3− is reported. Reaction kinetics were characterized spectrophotometrically. Reaction rate was evaluated at several different pH levels in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3− and [Fe(CN)6]4− ions. The formation of polypyrrole at aerobic and anaerobic conditions was evaluated. We report that at anaerobic conditions [Fe(CN)6]4− cannot initiate oxidative polymerization, while its oxidized form [Fe(CN)6]3− successfully initiates and maintains the pyrrole polymerization reaction. The formation of polypyrrole was also observed in the solution containing a pyrrole monomer, [Fe(CN)6]4− and dissolved oxygen due to re-oxidation (redox cycling) of [Fe(CN)6]4− into [Fe(CN)6]3− by dissolved oxygen. Experiments to determine the polymerization reaction rate were performed and showed the highest rate in the presence of 0.5 mM of [Fe(CN)6]3− at pH 9.0, while the polymerization reaction performed at pH 7.0 was determined as the slowest. This investigation opens new horizons for the application of [Fe(CN)6]4−/[Fe(CN)6]3−-based redox cycling reactions in the synthesis of the conducting polymer polypyrrole and potentially in the formation of other conducting polymers which can be formed by oxidative polymerization. View Full-Text
Keywords: conducting polymers; polypyrrole; polymerization reaction; reaction kinetics; redox cycling; initiator of polymerization conducting polymers; polypyrrole; polymerization reaction; reaction kinetics; redox cycling; initiator of polymerization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Andriukonis, E.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Ramanavicius, A. Synthesis of Polypyrrole Induced by [Fe(CN)6]3− and Redox Cycling of [Fe(CN)6]4−/[Fe(CN)6]3−. Polymers 2018, 10, 749.

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