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Polymers 2018, 10(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10020108

Electrosprayed Core–Shell Composite Microbeads Based on Pectin-Arabinoxylans for Insulin Carrying: Aggregation and Size Dispersion Control

1
Research Center for Food and Development, CIAD, A.C., Carretera a La Victoria Km. 0.6, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304, Mexico
2
Institute of Physics, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón #64, San Luis Potosí SLP 78000, Mexico
3
Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndoor, PA 19038, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Core-Shell Structured Polymers)
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Abstract

Aggregation and coalescence are major drawbacks that contribute to polydispersity in microparticles and nanoparticles fabricated from diverse biopolymers. This study presents the evaluation of a novel method for the direct, electrospray-induced fabrication of small, CaCl2/ethanol-hardened low methoxy pectin/arabinoxylans composite microbeads. The electrospray method was evaluated to control particle size by adjusting voltage, flux, and crosslinking solution content of CaCl2/ethanol. A bead diameter of 1µm was set as reference to test the capability of this method. Insulin was chosen as a model carried molecule. Statistical analysis was a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with a factorial arrangement of 24. The variables studied were magnitude and particle size dispersion. For the determination of these variables, light diffraction techniques, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used. Major interaction was found for ethanol and CaCl2 as well as flow and voltage. Stable spherical structures of core–shell beads were obtained with neither aggregation nor coalescence for all treatments where ethanol was included in the crosslinking solution, and the average diameter within 1 ± 0.024 μm for 11 KV, 75% ethanol with 11% CaCl2, and flow of 0.97 mL/h. View Full-Text
Keywords: pectin; arabinoxylan; insulin microbeads; electrospray; core–shell composite pectin; arabinoxylan; insulin microbeads; electrospray; core–shell composite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rascón-Chu, A.; Díaz-Baca, J.A.; Carvajal-Millan, E.; Pérez-López, E.; Hotchkiss, A.T.; González-Ríos, H.; Balandrán-Quintana, R.; Campa-Mada, A.C. Electrosprayed Core–Shell Composite Microbeads Based on Pectin-Arabinoxylans for Insulin Carrying: Aggregation and Size Dispersion Control. Polymers 2018, 10, 108.

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