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Crystals 2019, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9010013

Bioinspired Mineralization of Type I Collagen Fibrils with Apatite in Presence of Citrate and Europium Ions

1
Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, IACT, CSIC–UGR. Avda. Las Palmeras, nº 4. E–18100 Armilla (Granada), Spain
2
Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC), National Research Council (CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (RA), Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/a, 43124 Parma, Italy
4
Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale A. Avogadro, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy
5
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Growth of Calcium Phosphate Crystals)
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Abstract

Synthetic nanostructured hybrid composites based on collagen and nanocrystalline apatites are interesting materials for the generation of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this work, mineralized collagen fibrils were prepared in the presence of citrate and Eu3+. Citrate is an indispensable and essential structural/functional component of bone. Eu3+ endows the mineralized fibrils of the necessary luminescent features to be potentially employed as a diagnostic tool in biomedical applications. The assembly and mineralization of collagen were performed by the neutralization method, which consists in adding dropwise a Ca(OH)2 solution to a H3PO4 solution containing the dispersed type I collagen until neutralization. In the absence of citrate, the resultant collagen fibrils were mineralized with nanocrystalline apatites. When citrate was added in the titrant solution in a Citrate/Ca molar ratio of 2 or 1, it acted as an inhibitor of the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to nanocrystalline apatite. The addition of Eu3+ and citrate in the same titrant solution lead to the formation of Eu3+–doped citrate–coated ACP/collagen fibrils. Interestingly, the relative luminescent intensity and luminescence lifetime of this latter composite were superior to those of Eu3+–doped apatite/collagen prepared in absence of citrate. The cytocompatibility tests, evaluated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) colorimetric assay in a dose–dependent manner on GTL–16 human gastric carcinoma cells, on MG–63 human osteosarcoma cells and on the m17.ASC, a spontaneously immortalized mouse mesenchymal stem cell clone from subcutaneous adipose tissue, show that, in general, all samples are highly cytocompatible. View Full-Text
Keywords: collagen mineralization; apatite; amorphous calcium phosphate; citrate; europium; luminescence; cytocompatibility collagen mineralization; apatite; amorphous calcium phosphate; citrate; europium; luminescence; cytocompatibility
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gómez Morales, J.; Fernández Penas, R.; Verdugo-Escamilla, C.; Degli Esposti, L.; Oltolina, F.; Prat, M.; Iafisco, M.; Fernández Sánchez, J.F. Bioinspired Mineralization of Type I Collagen Fibrils with Apatite in Presence of Citrate and Europium Ions. Crystals 2019, 9, 13.

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