The interest in mechanochemical reactions and their fields of application have increased enormously in recent times. Mechanically activated reactions offer the advantage of cost-efficiency as well as environmentally friendly syntheses routes. In contrast to thermally induced processes, the energy transfer via the milling media takes place on a local scale. This leads to unique reaction pathways, which often also result in the formation of metastable phases. For the understanding of reaction pathways on a mechanistic level, it is very important to follow the processes taking place in the grinding jar during milling. Besides the measurement of pressure and temperature changes during a mechanochemical reaction, in situ high energy synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy experiments have been successfully implemented over the last 10 years. This review will highlight the developments which were achieved in the field of in situ monitoring of mechanochemical reactions and their input to the understanding of mechanochemistry.
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