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Open AccessArticle

Simulating the Hysteretic Characteristics of Hard Magnetic Materials Based on Nd2Fe14B and Ce2Fe14B Intermetallics

1
Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 49, 119334 Moscow, Russia
2
National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskii pr. 4, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3
Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wroclaw, Poland
4
VSB—Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, 17. listopadu 2172/15, 70800 Ostrava, Czech Republic
5
JSC Spetsmagnit, Dmitrovskoe sh. 58, 127238 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2020, 10(6), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10060518
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 14 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallic Compound)
The Ce2Fe14B intermetallic, like Nd2Fe14B, has the tetragonal Nd2Fe14B-type structure (space group P42/mnm), in which Ce ions have a mixed-valence state characterized by the coexistence of trivalent 4f1 and tetravalent 4f0 electron states. Despite the fact that the saturation magnetization, magnetic anisotropy field, and Curie temperature of the Ce2Fe14B intermetallic are substantially lower than those of Nd2Fe14B and Pr2Fe14B, Ce2Fe14B retains the capacity of being able to be used in the manufacturing of rare-earth permanent magnets. Moreover, at low temperatures, the anisotropy field of Се2Fe14B is higher than that of Nd2Fe14B, and Се2Fe14B does not undergo the spin-reorientation transition. In this respect, studies of (Nd, Ce)-Fe-B alloys, which are intended for the improvement of the service characteristics-to-cost ratio, are very relevant. A model and algorithm for calculating the hysteresis loops of uniaxial hard magnetic materials with allowance for the K1 and K2 (K2 > 0 and K1 > 0 and K1 < 0) magnetic anisotropy constants were developed and allowed us to obtain data on their effect on the parameters of hysteresis loops for a wide temperature range (0–300 K). The simulation and analysis of hysteresis loops of the quasi-ternary intermetallics (Nd1−хСех)2Fe14B (х = 0–1) was performed. Results of the simulation indicate that the alloying of the Nd2Fe14B intermetallic with Ce to x = 0.94 (1) does not completely eliminate the negative effect of spin-reorientation phase transition on the residual magnetization of the (Nd1−хCeх)2Fe14B intermetallic and (2) slightly decreases the slope of magnetization reversal curve. View Full-Text
Keywords: R-Fe-B intermetallics; cerium; permanent magnets; simulation; magnetic anisotropy constant; hysteresis loop; coercive force; residual magnetization R-Fe-B intermetallics; cerium; permanent magnets; simulation; magnetic anisotropy constant; hysteresis loop; coercive force; residual magnetization
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Kolchugina, N.B.; Zheleznyi, M.V.; Savchenko, A.G.; Menushenkov, V.P.; Burkhanov, G.S.; Koshkid’ko, Y.S.; Ćwik, J.; Dormidontov, N.A.; Skotnicova, K.; Kursa, M.; Prokofev, P.A. Simulating the Hysteretic Characteristics of Hard Magnetic Materials Based on Nd2Fe14B and Ce2Fe14B Intermetallics. Crystals 2020, 10, 518.

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