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Open AccessArticle

Novel Functionality of Lithium-Impregnated Titania as Nanocatalyst

1
Department of Green Chemistry, LUT University, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli, Finland
2
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylän yliopisto, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110943 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 October 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuel Processing with Multifunctional Catalysts)
The present work incorporates the synthesis of a multifunctional catalyst for the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) to biodiesel and recovery of rare earth elements (REEs). For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 doped with lithium ions were prepared. The influence of lithium ions on the catalytic performance of TiO2 was attained by impregnation of the different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide to bare TiO2. Then each catalyst was screened for catalytic conversion of WCO to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and also for REEs recovery. All synthesized materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, and Hammett indicator for the basicity test. The obtained biodiesel was characterized by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 1H, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Moreover, the physical parameters of the synthesized biodiesel were also determined. The REEs recovery efficiency of synthesized nanomaterials was investigated, and the percentage of REEs removal was determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; rare earth elements; TiO2; nanocatalyst; waste cooking oil biodiesel; rare earth elements; TiO2; nanocatalyst; waste cooking oil
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ambat, I.; Srivastava, V.; Haapaniemi, E.; Sillanpää, M. Novel Functionality of Lithium-Impregnated Titania as Nanocatalyst. Catalysts 2019, 9, 943.

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