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Open AccessArticle

Photocatalytic Degradation of Estriol Using Iron-Doped TiO2 under High and Low UV Irradiation

1
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
2
Desert Research Institute (DRI), 755 E. Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, NV 89119-7363, USA
3
Graduate Program Hydrologic Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120625
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Trends in TiO2 Photocatalysis and Applications)
Iron-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Fe-TiO2) were synthesized and photocatalitically investigated under high and low fluence values of UV radiation. The Fe-TiO2 physical characterization was performed using X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS evidenced that the ferric ion (Fe3+) was in the TiO2 lattice and unintentionally added co-dopants were also present because of the precursors of the synthetic method. The Fe3+ concentration played a key role in the photocatalytic generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and estriol (E3) degradation. Fe-TiO2 accomplished E3 degradation, and it was found that the catalyst with 0.3 at.% content of Fe (0.3 Fe-TiO2) enhanced the photocatalytic activity under low UV irradiation compared with TiO2 without intentionally added Fe (zero-iron TiO2) and Aeroxide® TiO2 P25. Furthermore, the enhanced photocatalytic activity of 0.3 Fe-TiO2 under low UV irradiation may have applications when radiation intensity must be controlled, as in medical applications, or when strong UV absorbing species are present in water. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron-doped TiO2; photocatalytic activity; low UV irradiation; hydroxyl radical; estriol iron-doped TiO2; photocatalytic activity; low UV irradiation; hydroxyl radical; estriol
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Ramírez-Sánchez, I.M.; Bandala, E.R. Photocatalytic Degradation of Estriol Using Iron-Doped TiO2 under High and Low UV Irradiation. Catalysts 2018, 8, 625.

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