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Open AccessArticle

Conversion of Carbohydrates into Platform Chemicals Catalyzed by Alkaline Ionic Liquids

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2017, 7(9), 245;
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organocatalysis in Ionic Liquids)
A series of alkaline ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium benzoate ([BMIM]PHCOO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium carbonate ([BMIM]2CO3), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([BMIM]OAc), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide ([BMIM]OH), ethanolamine tetrafluoroborate ([MEA]BF4), and 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG)-based ILs, etc., were synthesized and utilized as catalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-HMF. 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine tetrafluoroborate ([TMG]BF4) was confirmed to exhibit excellent catalytic activity, and was much cheaper than other ILs such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) for use as a solvent in the conversion of C6 carbohydrates into 5-HMF. The 5-HMF yields from fructose, glucose, cellobiose, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were 74.19%, 27.33%, 20.20%, and 17.73%, respectively. In addition, the possible pathway of carbohydrates (MCC, cellobiose, glucose, etc.) conversion into 5-HMF with [TMG]BF4 as a catalyst was speculated, and the conversion of glucose into 5-HMF was determined to likely be the committed step in the transformation of MCC catalyzed by [TMG]BF4. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaline ionic liquids; conversion of carbohydrates; 5-HMF; [TMG]BF4 alkaline ionic liquids; conversion of carbohydrates; 5-HMF; [TMG]BF4
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Du, X.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Y.; Qu, Y. Conversion of Carbohydrates into Platform Chemicals Catalyzed by Alkaline Ionic Liquids. Catalysts 2017, 7, 245.

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