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Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma
Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2013; Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer, with a dismal prognosis and extremely low percentage of survivors. Novel therapies are in dire need to improve the clinical management of these tumors and extend patient survival. Genetic therapies for GBM have been postulated and attempted for the past twenty years, with variable degrees of success in pre-clinical models and clinical trials. Here we review the most common approaches to treat GBM by gene therapy, including strategies to deliver tumor-suppressor genes, suicide genes, immunomodulatory cytokines to improve immune response, and conditionally-replicating oncolytic viruses. The review focuses on the strategies used for gene delivery, including the most common and widely used vehicles (i.e., replicating and non-replicating viruses) as well as novel therapeutic approaches such as stem cell-mediated therapy and nanotechnologies used for gene delivery. We present an overview of these strategies, their targets, different advantages, and challenges for success. Finally, we discuss the potential of gene therapy-based strategies to effectively attack such a complex genetic target as GBM, alone or in combination with conventional therapy.
Keywords: gene therapy; oncolytic virus; stem cells; nanotechnology; gene transfer; glioma invasion; suicide gene; immunomodulation
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Kwiatkowska, A.; Nandhu, M.S.; Behera, P.; Chiocca, E.A.; Viapiano, M.S. Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma. Cancers 2013, 5, 1271-1305.
Kwiatkowska A, Nandhu MS, Behera P, Chiocca EA, Viapiano MS. Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma. Cancers. 2013; 5(4):1271-1305.
Kwiatkowska, Aneta; Nandhu, Mohan S.; Behera, Prajna; Chiocca, E. A.; Viapiano, Mariano S. 2013. "Strategies in Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma." Cancers 5, no. 4: 1271-1305.