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Article

AutoProstate: Towards Automated Reporting of Prostate MRI for Prostate Cancer Assessment Using Deep Learning

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Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 7EH, UK
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Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Department of Medical Radiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
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Interventional Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London SW3 6JJ, UK
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Imperial Prostate, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
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Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabio Zattoni
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 6138; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236138
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 3 December 2021 / Published: 6 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies in Prostate Cancer: From Diagnosis to Treatment)
International guidelines recommend multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate for use by radiologists to identify lesions containing clinically significant prostate cancer, prior to confirmatory biopsy. Automatic assessment of prostate mpMRI using artificial intelligence algorithms holds a currently unrealized potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy achievable by radiologists alone, improve the reporting consistency between radiologists, and enhance reporting quality. In this work, we introduce AutoProstate: a deep learning-powered framework for automatic MRI-based prostate cancer assessment. In particular, AutoProstate utilizes patient data and biparametric MRI to populate an automatic web-based report which includes segmentations of the whole prostate, prostatic zones, and candidate clinically significant prostate cancer lesions, and in addition, several derived characteristics with clinical value are presented. Notably, AutoProstate performed well in external validation using the PICTURE study dataset, suggesting value in prospective multicentre validation, with a view towards future deployment into the prostate cancer diagnostic pathway.
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate is used by radiologists to identify, score, and stage abnormalities that may correspond to clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa). Automatic assessment of prostate mpMRI using artificial intelligence algorithms may facilitate a reduction in missed cancers and unnecessary biopsies, an increase in inter-observer agreement between radiologists, and an improvement in reporting quality. In this work, we introduce AutoProstate, a deep learning-powered framework for automatic MRI-based prostate cancer assessment. AutoProstate comprises of three modules: Zone-Segmenter, CSPCa-Segmenter, and Report-Generator. Zone-Segmenter segments the prostatic zones on T2-weighted imaging, CSPCa-Segmenter detects and segments CSPCa lesions using biparametric MRI, and Report-Generator generates an automatic web-based report containing four sections: Patient Details, Prostate Size and PSA Density, Clinically Significant Lesion Candidates, and Findings Summary. In our experiment, AutoProstate was trained using the publicly available PROSTATEx dataset, and externally validated using the PICTURE dataset. Moreover, the performance of AutoProstate was compared to the performance of an experienced radiologist who prospectively read PICTURE dataset cases. In comparison to the radiologist, AutoProstate showed statistically significant improvements in prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen density estimation. Furthermore, AutoProstate matched the CSPCa lesion detection sensitivity of the radiologist, which is paramount, but produced more false positive detections. View Full-Text
Keywords: automatic report; computer-aided diagnosis; convolutional neural network; deep learning; lesion detection; lesion classification; magnetic resonance imaging; prostate cancer; segmentation automatic report; computer-aided diagnosis; convolutional neural network; deep learning; lesion detection; lesion classification; magnetic resonance imaging; prostate cancer; segmentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehta, P.; Antonelli, M.; Singh, S.; Grondecka, N.; Johnston, E.W.; Ahmed, H.U.; Emberton, M.; Punwani, S.; Ourselin, S. AutoProstate: Towards Automated Reporting of Prostate MRI for Prostate Cancer Assessment Using Deep Learning. Cancers 2021, 13, 6138. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236138

AMA Style

Mehta P, Antonelli M, Singh S, Grondecka N, Johnston EW, Ahmed HU, Emberton M, Punwani S, Ourselin S. AutoProstate: Towards Automated Reporting of Prostate MRI for Prostate Cancer Assessment Using Deep Learning. Cancers. 2021; 13(23):6138. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236138

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mehta, Pritesh, Michela Antonelli, Saurabh Singh, Natalia Grondecka, Edward W. Johnston, Hashim U. Ahmed, Mark Emberton, Shonit Punwani, and Sébastien Ourselin. 2021. "AutoProstate: Towards Automated Reporting of Prostate MRI for Prostate Cancer Assessment Using Deep Learning" Cancers 13, no. 23: 6138. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236138

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