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Review

Radionuclide-Based Imaging of Breast Cancer: State of the Art

by 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 3, 1,2, 3,4,* and 1,2,*
1
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
2
Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, China
3
Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA
4
Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angela Spanu
Cancers 2021, 13(21), 5459; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215459
Received: 23 August 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 30 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging: Current Trends and Future Direction)
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumors, possessing high incidence and mortality rates that threaten women’s health. Thus, early and effective breast cancer diagnosis is crucial for enhancing the survival rate. Radionuclide molecular imaging displays its advantages for detecting breast cancer from a functional perspective. Noninvasive visualization of biological processes with radionuclide-labeled small metabolic compounds helps elucidate the metabolic state of breast cancer, while radionuclide-labeled ligands/antibodies for receptor-targeted radionuclide molecular imaging is sensitive and specific for visualization of the overexpressed molecular markers in breast cancer. This review focuses on the most recent developments of novel radiotracers as promising tools for early breast cancer diagnosis.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that can affect women worldwide and endanger their health and wellbeing. Early detection of breast cancer can significantly improve the prognosis and survival rate of patients, but with traditional anatomical imagine methods, it is difficult to detect lesions before morphological changes occur. Radionuclide-based molecular imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) displays its advantages for detecting breast cancer from a functional perspective. Radionuclide labeling of small metabolic compounds can be used for imaging biological processes, while radionuclide labeling of ligands/antibodies can be used for imaging receptors. Noninvasive visualization of biological processes helps elucidate the metabolic state of breast cancer, while receptor-targeted radionuclide molecular imaging is sensitive and specific for visualization of the overexpressed molecular markers in breast cancer, contributing to early diagnosis and better management of cancer patients. The rapid development of radionuclide probes aids the diagnosis of breast cancer in various aspects. These probes target metabolism, amino acid transporters, cell proliferation, hypoxia, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and so on. This article provides an overview of the development of radionuclide molecular imaging techniques present in preclinical or clinical studies, which are used as tools for early breast cancer diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; radionuclide; molecular imaging; positron emission tomography (PET); single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) breast cancer; radionuclide; molecular imaging; positron emission tomography (PET); single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Liu, Z.; Yuan, L.; Fan, K.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, W.; Lan, X. Radionuclide-Based Imaging of Breast Cancer: State of the Art. Cancers 2021, 13, 5459. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215459

AMA Style

Li H, Liu Z, Yuan L, Fan K, Zhang Y, Cai W, Lan X. Radionuclide-Based Imaging of Breast Cancer: State of the Art. Cancers. 2021; 13(21):5459. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215459

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Huiling, Zhen Liu, Lujie Yuan, Kevin Fan, Yongxue Zhang, Weibo Cai, and Xiaoli Lan. 2021. "Radionuclide-Based Imaging of Breast Cancer: State of the Art" Cancers 13, no. 21: 5459. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215459

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