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Open AccessArticle

Genome-Wide Comparison of the Target Genes of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Non-Reactive Oxygen Species Constituents of Cold Atmospheric Plasma in Cancer Cells

1
Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang 10326, Korea
2
Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2020, 12(9), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092640
Received: 14 August 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plasma Oncology toward Clinical Translation)
Cold atmospheric plasma is being applied to treat cancer by virtue of its preferential anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells over normal cells. This study aimed to systemically determine the distribution of target genes regulated by the reactive oxygen species and non-reactive oxygen species constituents of the plasma. After analyzing genome-wide expression data for a leukemia and a melanoma cancer cell line from a public database followed by experimental approaches, PTGER3 and HSPA6 genes were found regulated by the non-reactive oxygen species and non-reactive nitrogen species constituents of the plasma in the cancer cells. This study could contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanism how each physicochemical constituent of the plasma induces the specific molecular changes in cancer cells.
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can induce cancer cell death. The majority of gene regulation studies have been biased towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) among the physicochemical components of CAP. The current study aimed to systemically determine the distribution of target genes regulated by the ROS and non-ROS constituents of CAP. Genome-wide expression data from a public database, which were obtained after treating U937 leukemia and SK-mel-147 melanoma cells with CAP or H2O2, were analyzed, and gene sets regulated by either or both of them were identified. The results showed 252 and 762 genes in H2O2-treated U937 and SK-mel-147 cells, respectively, and 112 and 843 genes in CAP-treated U937 and SK-mel-147 cells, respectively, with expression changes higher than two-fold. Notably, only four and two genes were regulated by H2O2 and CAP in common, respectively, indicating that non-ROS constituents were responsible for the regulation of the majority of CAP-regulated genes. Experiments using ROS and nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors demonstrated the ROS- and reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-independent regulation of PTGER3 and HSPA6 when U937 cancer cells were treated with CAP. Taken together, this study identified CAP-specific genes regulated by constituents other than ROS or RNS and could contribute to the annotation of the target genes of specific constituents in CAP. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin cancer cells; leukemia cancer cells; cold atmospheric plasma; KEGG pathway; reactive oxygen species skin cancer cells; leukemia cancer cells; cold atmospheric plasma; KEGG pathway; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ji, H.W.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.W.; Yun, S.H.; Park, J.E.; Choi, E.H.; Kim, S.J. Genome-Wide Comparison of the Target Genes of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Non-Reactive Oxygen Species Constituents of Cold Atmospheric Plasma in Cancer Cells. Cancers 2020, 12, 2640.

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