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The Role of RNA and DNA Aptamers in Glioblastoma Diagnosis and Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

1
IRCCS SDN (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, SYNLAB istituto di Diagnostica Nucleare), 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Percuros B.V., 2333 CL Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, “Federico II” University of Naples, Via Tommaso de Amicis 95, 80131 Naples, Italy
4
IRCCS Neuromed–Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Pozzilli, 18–IT-86077 Pozzilli, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2173; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082173
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 2 August 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Aptamers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary brain tumor of the central nervous system in adults. Despite advances in surgical and medical neuro-oncology, the median survival is about 15 months. For this reason, initial diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted therapy of GBM represent very attractive areas of study. Aptamers are short three-dimensional structures of single-stranded nucleic acids (RNA or DNA), identified by an in vitro process, named systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), starting from a partially random oligonucleotide library. They bind to a molecular target with high affinity and specificity and can be easily modified to optimize binding affinity and selectivity. Thanks to their properties (low immunogenicity and toxicity, long stability, and low production variability), a large number of aptamers have been selected against GBM biomarkers and provide specific imaging agents and therapeutics to improve the diagnosis and treatment of GBM. However, the use of aptamers in GBM diagnosis and treatment still represents an underdeveloped topic, mainly due to limited literature in the research world. On these bases, we performed a systematic review aimed at summarizing current knowledge on the new promising DNA and RNA aptamer-based molecules for GBM diagnosis and treatment. Thirty-eight studies from 2000 were included and investigated. Seventeen involved the use of aptamers for GBM diagnosis and 21 for GBM therapy. Our findings showed that a number of DNA and RNA aptamers are promising diagnostic and therapeutic tools for GBM management. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamer; nucleic acid; glioblastoma; diagnosis; therapy aptamer; nucleic acid; glioblastoma; diagnosis; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nuzzo, S.; Brancato, V.; Affinito, A.; Salvatore, M.; Cavaliere, C.; Condorelli, G. The Role of RNA and DNA Aptamers in Glioblastoma Diagnosis and Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Cancers 2020, 12, 2173. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082173

AMA Style

Nuzzo S, Brancato V, Affinito A, Salvatore M, Cavaliere C, Condorelli G. The Role of RNA and DNA Aptamers in Glioblastoma Diagnosis and Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Cancers. 2020; 12(8):2173. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082173

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nuzzo, Silvia, Valentina Brancato, Alessandra Affinito, Marco Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere, and Gerolama Condorelli. 2020. "The Role of RNA and DNA Aptamers in Glioblastoma Diagnosis and Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature" Cancers 12, no. 8: 2173. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082173

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