: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most important gynecological cancer in terms of incidence. microRNAs (miRs), which are post-transcriptional regulators implicated in a variety of cellular functions including carcinogenesis, are particularly attractive candidates as biomarkers. Indeed, several studies have shown that the miR expression pattern appears to be associated with prognostic factors in EC. Our objective is to review the current knowledge of the role of miRs in carcinogenesis and tumor progression and their association with the prognosis of endometrial cancer. Materials and Method
: We performed a literature search for miR expression in EC using MEDLINE, PubMed (the Internet portal of the National Library of Medicine) and The Cochrane Library, Cochrane databases “Cochrane Reviews” and “Clinical Trials” using the following keywords: microRNA, endometrial cancer, prognosis, diagnosis, lymph node, survival, plasma, FFPE (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded). The miRs were classified and presented according to their expression levels in cancer tissue in relation to different prognostic factors. Results
: Data were collected from 74 original articles and 8 literature reviews which described the expression levels of 261 miRs in ECs, including 133 onco-miRs, 110 miR onco-suppressors, and 18 miRs with discordant functions. The review identified 30 articles studying the expression pattern of miR in neoplastic endometrial tissue compared to benign and/or hyperplastic tissues, 12 articles detailing the expression profile of miRs as a function of lymph node status, and 14 articles that detailed the expression pattern of miRs in endometrial tumor tissue according to overall survival or in the absence of recurrence. Conclusions
: The findings presented here suggest that miR analysis merits a role as a prognostic factor in the management of patients with endometrial cancer.
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