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Translational Potential of MicroRNAs for Preoperative Staging and Prediction of Chemoradiotherapy Response in Rectal Cancer

1
Department of Molecular Medicine, European Institute of Technology, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Surgery, University Hospital Brno, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101545
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Biomarkers in Cancers)
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related deaths. Rectal cancer presents roughly one-third of all colorectal cancer cases and differs from it on both anatomical and molecular levels. While standard treatment of colon cancer patients is radical surgery, rectal cancer is usually treated with pre-operative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision, which requires precise estimation of TNM staging. Unfortunately, stage evaluation is based solely on imaging modalities, and they often do not correlate with postoperative pathological findings. Moreover, approximately half of rectal cancer patients do not respond to such pre-operative therapy, so they are exposed to its toxic effects without any clinical benefit. Thus, biomarkers that could precisely predict pre-operative TNM staging, and especially response to therapy, would significantly advance rectal cancer treatment—but till now, no such biomarker has been identified. In cancer research, microRNAs are emerging biomarkers due to their connection with carcinogenesis and exceptional stability. Circulating miRNAs are promising non-invasive biomarkers that could allow monitoring of a patient throughout the whole therapeutic process. This mini-review aims to summarize the current knowledge on miRNAs and circulating miRNAs involved in the prediction of response to treatment and pre-operative staging in rectal cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; circulating microRNA; biomarker; colorectal cancer; miRNA microRNA; circulating microRNA; biomarker; colorectal cancer; miRNA
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Machackova, T.; Prochazka, V.; Kala, Z.; Slaby, O. Translational Potential of MicroRNAs for Preoperative Staging and Prediction of Chemoradiotherapy Response in Rectal Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 1545.

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