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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview

Electrophysiology Read-Out Tools for Brain-on-Chip Biotechnology

1
Tissue Electronics, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci, 53-80125 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
3
Enhanced Regenerative Medicine, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego, 30-16163 Genova, Italy
4
Microtechnology for Neuroelectronics, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego, 30-16163 Genova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editor: Regina Luttge
Micromachines 2021, 12(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12020124
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidic Brain-on-a-Chip)
Brain-on-Chip (BoC) biotechnology is emerging as a promising tool for biomedical and pharmaceutical research applied to the neurosciences. At the convergence between lab-on-chip and cell biology, BoC couples in vitro three-dimensional brain-like systems to an engineered microfluidics platform designed to provide an in vivo-like extrinsic microenvironment with the aim of replicating tissue- or organ-level physiological functions. BoC therefore offers the advantage of an in vitro reproduction of brain structures that is more faithful to the native correlate than what is obtained with conventional cell culture techniques. As brain function ultimately results in the generation of electrical signals, electrophysiology techniques are paramount for studying brain activity in health and disease. However, as BoC is still in its infancy, the availability of combined BoC–electrophysiology platforms is still limited. Here, we summarize the available biological substrates for BoC, starting with a historical perspective. We then describe the available tools enabling BoC electrophysiology studies, detailing their fabrication process and technical features, along with their advantages and limitations. We discuss the current and future applications of BoC electrophysiology, also expanding to complementary approaches. We conclude with an evaluation of the potential translational applications and prospective technology developments. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D neuronal cultures; tissue engineering; brain-on-chip; brain organoid; neural spheroid; biomimetic tissue; in vitro electrophysiology; MEMS; microfluidics; biohybrid 3D neuronal cultures; tissue engineering; brain-on-chip; brain organoid; neural spheroid; biomimetic tissue; in vitro electrophysiology; MEMS; microfluidics; biohybrid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Forro, C.; Caron, D.; Angotzi, G.N.; Gallo, V.; Berdondini, L.; Santoro, F.; Palazzolo, G.; Panuccio, G. Electrophysiology Read-Out Tools for Brain-on-Chip Biotechnology. Micromachines 2021, 12, 124. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12020124

AMA Style

Forro C, Caron D, Angotzi GN, Gallo V, Berdondini L, Santoro F, Palazzolo G, Panuccio G. Electrophysiology Read-Out Tools for Brain-on-Chip Biotechnology. Micromachines. 2021; 12(2):124. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12020124

Chicago/Turabian Style

Forro, Csaba; Caron, Davide; Angotzi, Gian N.; Gallo, Vincenzo; Berdondini, Luca; Santoro, Francesca; Palazzolo, Gemma; Panuccio, Gabriella. 2021. "Electrophysiology Read-Out Tools for Brain-on-Chip Biotechnology" Micromachines 12, no. 2: 124. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi12020124

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