Next Article in Journal
Discovery of the Gene Encoding a Novel Small Serum Protein (SSP) of Protobothrops flavoviridis and the Evolution of SSPs
Previous Article in Journal
Cysteine-Rich Secretory Proteins (CRISPs) from Venomous Snakes: An Overview of the Functional Diversity in a Large and Underappreciated Superfamily
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Streptococcal and Staphylococcal Exotoxins and Proteases in Human Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections
Open AccessReview

Allergy—A New Role for T Cell Superantigens of Staphylococcus aureus?

1
Department of Immunology, University Medicine Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany
2
Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Current address: Department of Medicine Solna, Immunology and Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030176
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
Staphylococcus aureus superantigens (SAgs) are among the most potent T cell mitogens known. They stimulate large fractions of T cells by cross-linking their T cell receptor with major histocompatibility complex class-II molecules on antigen presenting cells, resulting in T cell proliferation and massive cytokine release. To date, 26 different SAgs have been described in the species S. aureus; they comprise the toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1), as well as 25 staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) or enterotoxin-like proteins (SEls). SAgs can cause staphylococcal food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome and contribute to the clinical symptoms of staphylococcal infection. In addition, there is growing evidence that SAgs are involved in allergic diseases. This review provides an overview on recent epidemiological data on the involvement of S. aureus SAgs and anti-SAg-IgE in allergy, demonstrating that being sensitized to SEs—in contrast to inhalant allergens—is associated with a severe disease course in patients with chronic airway inflammation. The mechanisms by which SAgs trigger or amplify allergic immune responses, however, are not yet fully understood. Here, we discuss known and hypothetical pathways by which SAgs can drive an atopic disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; superantigens; T cells; allergy; sensitization; IgE; T cell superallergen Staphylococcus aureus; superantigens; T cells; allergy; sensitization; IgE; T cell superallergen
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abdurrahman, G.; Schmiedeke, F.; Bachert, C.; Bröker, B.M.; Holtfreter, S. Allergy—A New Role for T Cell Superantigens of Staphylococcus aureus? Toxins 2020, 12, 176.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop