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Open AccessArticle

Fusarium Mycotoxins Stability during the Malting and Brewing Processes

Biotechnology Department, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, Sao Paulo 2415, Brazil
Research Institute of Brewing and Malting, Malting Institute Brno, Mostecká 7, 614 00 Brno, Czech Republic
University of the Extreme Southern Santa Catarina, Av. Universitaria, Criciuma 1105, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Department of Food Science, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, Av. Monteiro Lobato, 80., Campinas 13083-862, Brazil
Institute of Food Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 257;
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
Mycotoxins are widely studied by many research groups in all aspects, but the stability of these compounds needs further research for clarification. The objective of this study is to evaluate deoxynivalenol and zearalenone stability during all steps of the malting and brewing processes. The levels of these compounds decreased significantly during the production process (barley to beer). During the malting process, the DON levels decreased significantly in the steeping, germination, and malting steps (62%, 51.5%, and 68%, respectively). Considering ZEN, when the levels were compared between barley and the last step of the process, a significant decrease was observed. Most of the mycotoxins produced were transferred to the rootlets and spent grains, which is advantageous considering the final product. Furthermore, the mycotoxin dietary intake estimation was included in this study. The results proved that if the concentrations of target mycotoxins in raw material are under the limits established by the regulations, the levels decrease during the malting and brewing processes and make the beer secure for consumers. The quality of the five commodities involved in the beer process plays a decisive role in the creation of a safe final product. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; stability; malting; brewing; beer mycotoxins; stability; malting; brewing; beer
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Piacentini, K.C.; Běláková, S.; Benešová, K.; Pernica, M.; Savi, G.D.; Rocha, L.O.; Hartman, I.; Čáslavský, J.; Corrêa, B. Fusarium Mycotoxins Stability during the Malting and Brewing Processes. Toxins 2019, 11, 257.

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