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Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain

1
Department Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Department Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, University of Murcia, E-30100 Murcia, Spain
3
Department Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary, Campus Univ. Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060342
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Abstract

A survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, citrinin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, enniatins A, A1, B and B2, and beauvericin). The samples were analysed by solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection. Enniatin B was found in 100% of the samples (up to 1200 µg/kg) and beauvericin in more than 90%. Moreover, 40% of samples were contaminated with more than five mycotoxins. This high occurrence is insurmountable and surpasses all previous studies, probably due to the inclusion of emerging mycotoxins, scarcely explored. The majority of the samples (96.9%) were in accordance with EU regulations, which do not address emerging mycotoxins or co-occurrence. These results show that in order to ensure mycotoxin absence, emerging mycotoxins should always be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: feed; pig; mycotoxins; liquid chromatography; fluorescence detection; mass spectrometry; solid-liquid extraction; co-occurrence feed; pig; mycotoxins; liquid chromatography; fluorescence detection; mass spectrometry; solid-liquid extraction; co-occurrence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Arroyo-Manzanares, N.; Rodríguez-Estévez, V.; Arenas-Fernández, P.; García-Campaña, A.M.; Gámiz-Gracia, L. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain. Toxins 2019, 11, 342.

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