Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain
AbstractA survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, citrinin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, enniatins A, A1, B and B2, and beauvericin). The samples were analysed by solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection. Enniatin B was found in 100% of the samples (up to 1200 µg/kg) and beauvericin in more than 90%. Moreover, 40% of samples were contaminated with more than five mycotoxins. This high occurrence is insurmountable and surpasses all previous studies, probably due to the inclusion of emerging mycotoxins, scarcely explored. The majority of the samples (96.9%) were in accordance with EU regulations, which do not address emerging mycotoxins or co-occurrence. These results show that in order to ensure mycotoxin absence, emerging mycotoxins should always be considered. View Full-Text
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Arroyo-Manzanares, N.; Rodríguez-Estévez, V.; Arenas-Fernández, P.; García-Campaña, A.M.; Gámiz-Gracia, L. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain. Toxins 2019, 11, 342.
Arroyo-Manzanares N, Rodríguez-Estévez V, Arenas-Fernández P, García-Campaña AM, Gámiz-Gracia L. Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain. Toxins. 2019; 11(6):342.Chicago/Turabian Style
Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Rodríguez-Estévez, Vicente; Arenas-Fernández, Plácido; García-Campaña, Ana M.; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura. 2019. "Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain." Toxins 11, no. 6: 342.
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