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Toxins 2019, 11(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11030173

Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis-Derived Pesticidal Proteins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera)

1
Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, USDA ARS, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
4
Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA.
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citriculture. The ACP vectors a bacterium that causes huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating and incurable disease of citrus. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces multiple toxins with activity against a diverse range of insects. In efforts to provide additional control methods for the ACP vector of HLB, we identified pesticidal proteins derived from Bt for toxicity against ACP. The trypsin proteolytic profiles of strain-derived toxins were characterized. Strain IBL-00200, one of six strains with toxins shown to have basal activity against ACP was selected for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification of the individual Cry toxins expressed. Toxicity assays with individual toxins derived from IBL-00200 were then performed. The activated form of the Cry toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba were toxic to ACP with LC50 values of approximately 120 µg/mL. Disruption of the midgut epithelium was associated with the toxicity of both the IBL-00200-derived toxin mixture, and with Cry1Ba. With further optimization of the efficacy of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba, these toxins may have practical utility against ACP. Bt toxins with activity against ACP may provide an additional tool for management of ACP and the associated HLB disease, thereby providing a more sustainable and environmentally benign approach than repeated application of broad-spectrum insecticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asian citrus psyllid; Bacillus thuringiensis; pesticidal protein; toxin; gut epithelium Asian citrus psyllid; Bacillus thuringiensis; pesticidal protein; toxin; gut epithelium
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fernandez-Luna, M.T.; Kumar, P.; Hall, D.G.; Mitchell, A.D.; Blackburn, M.B.; Bonning, B.C. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis-Derived Pesticidal Proteins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ba against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera). Toxins 2019, 11, 173.

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