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Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy for Lingual Dystonia Using an Individualized Injection Method Based on Clinical Features
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Mandibular Bone Loss after Masticatory Muscles Intervention with Botulinum Toxin: An Approach from Basic Research to Clinical Findings

1
Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492, Chile
2
School of Dentistry, Universidad del Valle, Cali 760043, Colombia
3
Max Planck Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4
Center for Quantitative Analysis in Dental Anthropology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492, Chile
5
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
6
Center for Exercise, Metabolism and Cancer Studies CEMC2016, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Independencia 8380453, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020084
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Movement Disorders)
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PDF [2034 KB, uploaded 1 February 2019]
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Abstract

The injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in the masticatory muscles, to cause its temporary paralysis, is a widely used intervention for clinical disorders such as oromandibular dystonia, sleep bruxism, and aesthetics (i.e., masseteric hypertrophy). Considering that muscle contraction is required for mechano-transduction to maintain bone homeostasis, it is relevant to address the bone adverse effects associated with muscle condition after this intervention. Our aim is to condense the current and relevant literature about mandibular bone loss in fully mature mammals after BoNT/A intervention in the masticatory muscles. Here, we compile evidence from animal models (mice, rats, and rabbits) to clinical studies, demonstrating that BoNT/A-induced masticatory muscle atrophy promotes mandibular bone loss. Mandibular bone-related adverse effects involve cellular and metabolic changes, microstructure degradation, and morphological alterations. While bone loss has been detected at the mandibular condyle or alveolar bone, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process must still be elucidated. Further basic research could provide evidence for designing strategies to control the undesired effects on bone during the therapeutic use of BoNT/A. However, in the meantime, we consider it essential that patients treated with BoNT/A in the masticatory muscles be warned about a putative collateral mandibular bone damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin type A; bone quality; muscle atrophy; temporomandibular joint; mandibular condyle; alveolar process; alveolar bone loss botulinum toxin type A; bone quality; muscle atrophy; temporomandibular joint; mandibular condyle; alveolar process; alveolar bone loss
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Balanta-Melo, J.; Toro-Ibacache, V.; Kupczik, K.; Buvinic, S. Mandibular Bone Loss after Masticatory Muscles Intervention with Botulinum Toxin: An Approach from Basic Research to Clinical Findings. Toxins 2019, 11, 84.

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