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Article

Comparative Analysis of Microcystin Prevalence in Michigan Lakes by Online Concentration LC/MS/MS and ELISA

1
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010013
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Freshwater HABs and Health in a Changing World)
Fast and reliable workflows are needed to quantitate microcystins (MCs), a ubiquitous class of hepatotoxic cyanotoxins, so that the impact of human and environmental exposure is assessed quickly and minimized. Our goal was to develop a high-throughput online concentration liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) workflow to quantitate the 12 commercially available MCs and nodularin in surface and drinking waters. The method run time was 8.5 min with detection limits in the low ng/L range and minimum reporting levels between 5 and 10 ng/L. This workflow was benchmarked by determining the prevalence of MCs and comparing the Adda-ELISA quantitation to our new workflow from 122 samples representing 31 waterbodies throughout Michigan. The frequency of MC occurrence was MC-LA > LR > RR > D-Asp3-LR > YR > HilR > WR > D-Asp3-RR > HtyR > LY = LW = LF, while MC-RR had the highest concentrations. MCs were detected in 33 samples and 13 of these samples had more than 20% of their total MC concentration from MCs not present in US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Method 544. Furthermore, seasonal deviations between the LC/MS/MS and Adda-ELISA data suggest Adda-ELISA cross-reacts with MC degradation products. This workflow provides less than 24-h turnaround for quantification and also identified key differences between LC/MS/MS and ELISA quantitation that should be investigated further. View Full-Text
Keywords: online concentration; LC/MS/MS; microcystin; Michigan lakes; Adda-ELISA; cyanotoxins online concentration; LC/MS/MS; microcystin; Michigan lakes; Adda-ELISA; cyanotoxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Birbeck, J.A.; Westrick, J.A.; O’Neill, G.M.; Spies, B.; Szlag, D.C. Comparative Analysis of Microcystin Prevalence in Michigan Lakes by Online Concentration LC/MS/MS and ELISA. Toxins 2019, 11, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010013

AMA Style

Birbeck JA, Westrick JA, O’Neill GM, Spies B, Szlag DC. Comparative Analysis of Microcystin Prevalence in Michigan Lakes by Online Concentration LC/MS/MS and ELISA. Toxins. 2019; 11(1):13. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Birbeck, Johnna A.; Westrick, Judy A.; O’Neill, Grace M.; Spies, Brian; Szlag, David C. 2019. "Comparative Analysis of Microcystin Prevalence in Michigan Lakes by Online Concentration LC/MS/MS and ELISA" Toxins 11, no. 1: 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010013

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