Next Article in Journal
Determination of the Biological Activity and Structure Activity Relationships of Drugs Based on the Highly Cytotoxic Duocarmycins and CC-1065
Next Article in Special Issue
Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin: Structure and Function
Previous Article in Journal
CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2009, 1(2), 123-133;

Actin Crosslinking Toxins of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 / Published: 1 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Protein Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [491 KB, uploaded 1 December 2009]   |  


Actin crosslinking toxins produced by Gram-negative bacteria represent a small but unique class of bacterial protein toxins. For each of these toxins, a discrete actin crosslinking domain (ACD) that is a distant member of the ATP-dependent glutamine synthetase family of protein ligases is translocated to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. This domain then incorporates a glutamate-lysine crosslink between actin monomers, resulting in destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies argue that the function of these toxins during infection is not destruction of epithelial layers, but rather may specifically target phagocytic cells to promote survival of bacteria after the onset of innate immune defenses. This review will summarize key experiments performed over the past 10 years to reveal the function of these toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial protein toxin; Vibrio; MARTX; VgrG; actin; ACD bacterial protein toxin; Vibrio; MARTX; VgrG; actin; ACD

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Satchell, K.J.F. Actin Crosslinking Toxins of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Toxins 2009, 1, 123-133.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top