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Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analyses of the Effects of Dietary Platycodon grandiflorum on Liver and Serum of Obese Mice under a High-Fat Diet

1
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
BK21 Plus KNU Multi-Omics Based Creative Drug Research Team, College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
3
Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 34133, Korea
4
Center for Convergent Research of Emerging Virus Infection, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34114, Korea
5
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9010071
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
We aimed to identify metabolites involved in the anti-obesity effects of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice using mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic techniques. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND)-fed mice, HFD-fed mice, HFD with 1% PG extract-fed mice (HPGL), and HFD with 5% PG extract-fed mice (HPGH). After 8 weeks, the HFD group gained more weight than the ND group, while dietary 5% PG extract attenuated this change. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showed a clear distinction between experimental groups in serum and liver markers. We also identified 10 and 32 metabolites in the serum and liver, respectively, as potential biomarkers that could explain the effect of high-dose PG added to HFD-fed mice, which were strongly involved in amino acid metabolism (glycine, serine, threonine, methionine, glutamate, phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, and tyrosine), TCA cycle (fumarate and succinate), lipid metabolism (linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters, oleamide, and cholesterol), purine/pyrimidine metabolism (uracil and hypoxanthine), carbohydrate metabolism (maltose), and glycerophospholipid metabolism (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and lysophosphatidylethanolamines). We suggest that further studies on these metabolites could help us gain a better understanding of both HFD-induced obesity and the effects of PG. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; glycerophospholipids; high-fat diet; metabolite profiling; obesity; Platycodon grandiflorum amino acids; glycerophospholipids; high-fat diet; metabolite profiling; obesity; Platycodon grandiflorum
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Park, H.M.; Park, K.-T.; Park, E.C.; Kim, S.I.; Choi, M.S.; Liu, K.-H.; Lee, C.H. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analyses of the Effects of Dietary Platycodon grandiflorum on Liver and Serum of Obese Mice under a High-Fat Diet. Nutrients 2017, 9, 71.

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