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Article

Effects of 6 Months of Soy-Enriched High Protein Compared to Eucaloric Low Protein Snack Replacement on Appetite, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition in Normal-Weight Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Laparoscopy Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-14336, Iran
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Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 61357-15794, Iran
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Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran
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Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, VA 22207, USA
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417613151, Iran
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Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Nutrition Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-14336, Iran
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Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo, Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, WittyFit, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, José Afonso and Monica Sousa
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072266
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Intake and Physical Exercise as Modulators of Healthy Women)
(1) Background: The favorable effects of high protein snacks on body composition and appetite status in lean and athletic populations have been illustrated previously. However, the effects of soy-enriched high protein snacks have not been investigated in women with normal-weight obesity (NWO). Consequently, we aimed at comparing the effects of six months of soy-enriched high protein snack replacement on appetite, body composition, and dietary intake in women with NWO. (2) Methods: One hundred seven (107) women with NWO [(age: 24 ± 3 yrs, BMI: 22.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2, body fat percentage (BFP): 38 ± 3.2%)] who were assigned to one of two groups; high protein snack (HP, n = 52) containing 50 g soybean or isocaloric low-protein snack (protein: 18.2 g, carbohydrate: 15 g, fat: 10 g, energy: 210 kcal) or isocaloric low protein snack (LP, n = 55) containing 3.5 servings of fruit (protein: <2 g, carbohydrate: ≈50 g, fat: <1 g, energy: ≈210 kcal) as part of their daily meals (as a snack at 10 a.m.), successfully completed the study interventions. Body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), BFP, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, and appetite levels were evaluated prior to and after the six-month intervention. (3) Results: Appetite (HP = −12 mm and LP = −0.6 mm), energy intake (HP = −166.2 kcal/day and LP = 91.3 kcal), carbohydrate intake (HP = −58.4 g/day and LP = 6.4 g/day), WC (HP = −4.3 cm and LP = −0.9 cm), and BFP (HP = −3.7% and LP = −0.9%) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, while skeletal muscle mass (HP = 1.2 kg and LP = 0.3 kg) significantly increased in the HP compared to the LP group, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Six months of a soy-enriched high protein snack replacement decreased appetite and improved body composition in women with NWO. Our findings suggest that soy-enriched high protein snacks are an efficacious strategy for body composition improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: normal weight obesity; high-protein diet; high protein snack; body composition normal weight obesity; high-protein diet; high protein snack; body composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haghighat, N.; Ashtary-Larky, D.; Bagheri, R.; Wong, A.; Cheraghloo, N.; Moradpour, G.; Nordvall, M.; Asbaghi, O.; Moeinvaziri, N.; Amini, M.; Sohrabi, Z.; Dutheil, F. Effects of 6 Months of Soy-Enriched High Protein Compared to Eucaloric Low Protein Snack Replacement on Appetite, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition in Normal-Weight Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2266. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072266

AMA Style

Haghighat N, Ashtary-Larky D, Bagheri R, Wong A, Cheraghloo N, Moradpour G, Nordvall M, Asbaghi O, Moeinvaziri N, Amini M, Sohrabi Z, Dutheil F. Effects of 6 Months of Soy-Enriched High Protein Compared to Eucaloric Low Protein Snack Replacement on Appetite, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition in Normal-Weight Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2266. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072266

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haghighat, Neda, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Reza Bagheri, Alexei Wong, Neda Cheraghloo, Gholamreza Moradpour, Michael Nordvall, Omid Asbaghi, Nader Moeinvaziri, Masoud Amini, Zahra Sohrabi, and Frédéric Dutheil. 2021. "Effects of 6 Months of Soy-Enriched High Protein Compared to Eucaloric Low Protein Snack Replacement on Appetite, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition in Normal-Weight Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2266. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072266

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