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Association of Nursery School-Level Promotion of Vegetable Eating with Caregiver-Reported Vegetable Consumption Behaviours among Preschool Children: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese Children

1
Department of Global Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan
2
Department of Health and Welfare Services, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama 351-0104, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emilio Sacanella
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072236
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
Nursery schools can play an important role in children developing healthy eating behaviours, including vegetable consumption. However, the effect of school-level vegetable promotion on vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. This study examined the associations of nursery school-level promotion of eating vegetables first at meals with Japanese children’s vegetable consumption behaviours and BMI. We used cross-sectional data collected in 2015, 2016, and 2017 on 7402 children in classes of 3–5-year-olds in all 133 licensed nursery schools in Adachi, Tokyo, Japan. Caregivers were surveyed on their children’s eating behaviours (frequency of eating vegetables, willingness to eat vegetables and number of kinds of vegetables eaten), height and weight. Nursery school-level promotion of eating vegetables first at meals was assessed using individual responses, with the percentage of caregivers reporting that their children ate vegetables first at meals as a proxy for the school-level penetration of the promotion of vegetable eating. Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate the associations of school-level vegetable-eating promotion with vegetable consumption behaviours and BMI. Children in schools that were 1 interquartile range higher on vegetable promotion ate vegetable dishes more often (β = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.004–0.07), and were more often willing to eat vegetables (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07–1.28), as well as to eat more kinds of vegetables (adjusted odds ratio = 1.19 times; 95% CI: 1.06–1.34). School-level vegetable-eating promotion was not associated with BMI. The school-level health strategy of eating vegetables first may be effective in increasing children’s vegetable intake but not in preventing being overweight. View Full-Text
Keywords: eating pattern; eating vegetables first; eating behaviour; preschool children; school level; Japan eating pattern; eating vegetables first; eating behaviour; preschool children; school level; Japan
MDPI and ACS Style

Tani, Y.; Ochi, M.; Fujiwara, T. Association of Nursery School-Level Promotion of Vegetable Eating with Caregiver-Reported Vegetable Consumption Behaviours among Preschool Children: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese Children. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2236. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072236

AMA Style

Tani Y, Ochi M, Fujiwara T. Association of Nursery School-Level Promotion of Vegetable Eating with Caregiver-Reported Vegetable Consumption Behaviours among Preschool Children: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese Children. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2236. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072236

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tani, Yukako, Manami Ochi, and Takeo Fujiwara. 2021. "Association of Nursery School-Level Promotion of Vegetable Eating with Caregiver-Reported Vegetable Consumption Behaviours among Preschool Children: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese Children" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2236. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072236

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