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Article

Multidimensional Approach to Assess Nutrition and Lifestyle in Breastfeeding Women during the First Month of Lactation

1
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Arzobispo Morcillo 2, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Division of Neonatology Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), C/Profesor Martin Lagos s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: LaVerne L. Brown
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061766
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 22 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
The first month of lactation is a vulnerable nutritional period for the mother. Our aims were (1) to evaluate the nutritional status of breastfeeding women in the first month of lactation, and (2) to explore different aspects of nutrition and lifestyle through a multidimensional approach. A total of 30 healthy breastfeeding women were enrolled in this study. Dietary pattern was assessed through a 72-hour dietary recall questionnaire (days 7 and 28 postpartum) and data were compared with Dietary Recommendation Values (DRV), and through the Adherence to Healthy Food Pyramid (HFP) questionnaire (day 28). Anthropometric parameters were evaluated by bioimpedance. Using factor analysis, nutritional dimensions were extracted, and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between anthropometric parameters and dimensions. Compared to the DRV, women showed insufficient energy, water, vitamin D, and potassium intake and excessive proteins, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, and iron intake. We observed a moderate adherence to the HFP, with women being high in the fruits, vegetables, and oil categories, and low adherence to the physical activity, dairy products, and hydration categories. The nutritional dimension, including the HFP categories of physical activity, hydration, and animal protein intake together, was negatively associated with body weight (β = −3.7 ± 1.7; p-value = 0.047). In conclusion, during the first month postpartum, breastfeeding women exhibited several nutritional imbalances and poor physical activity negatively influencing anthropometric parameters. We propose a multidimensional approach to assess the nutritional status of breastfeeding women as a tool to detect specific deficiencies, allowing for personalized counseling. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; breastfeeding; diet intake; feeding behavior; food consumption; multidimensional scaling analysis body composition; breastfeeding; diet intake; feeding behavior; food consumption; multidimensional scaling analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gila-Díaz, A.; Díaz-Rullo Alcántara, N.; Herranz Carrillo, G.; Singh, P.; Arribas, S.M.; Ramiro-Cortijo, D. Multidimensional Approach to Assess Nutrition and Lifestyle in Breastfeeding Women during the First Month of Lactation. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061766

AMA Style

Gila-Díaz A, Díaz-Rullo Alcántara N, Herranz Carrillo G, Singh P, Arribas SM, Ramiro-Cortijo D. Multidimensional Approach to Assess Nutrition and Lifestyle in Breastfeeding Women during the First Month of Lactation. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061766

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gila-Díaz, Andrea, Nuria Díaz-Rullo Alcántara, Gloria Herranz Carrillo, Pratibha Singh, Silvia M. Arribas, and David Ramiro-Cortijo. 2021. "Multidimensional Approach to Assess Nutrition and Lifestyle in Breastfeeding Women during the First Month of Lactation" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1766. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061766

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