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Article

Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Maternal Lifestyle during Pregnancy: Island–Mainland Differentiation in the CRIBS Birth Cohort

1
Institute for Anthropological Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Centre for Applied Bioanthropology, Institute for Anthropological Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Translational Medicine, Srebrnjak Children’s Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Know-Center, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Division of Zoology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Pulmonology and Allergology for Infants and Young Children, Srebrnjak Children’s Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Nursing, Catholic University of Croatia, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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School of Medicine, “J. J. Strossmayer” University, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dubravka Havaš Auguštin and Jelena Šarac contributed equally to this paper.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082179
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 22 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet and Health—New Insights into an Old Story)
Maternal nutrition and lifestyle in pregnancy are important modifiable factors for both maternal and offspring’s health. Although the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects on health, recent studies have shown low adherence in Europe. This study aimed to assess the Mediterranean diet adherence in 266 pregnant women from Dalmatia, Croatia and to investigate their lifestyle habits and regional differences. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed through two Mediterranean diet scores. Differences in maternal characteristics (diet, education, income, parity, smoking, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity, contraception) with regards to location and dietary habits were analyzed using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. The machine learning approach was used to reveal other potential non-linear relationships. The results showed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low to moderate among the pregnant women in this study, with no significant mainland–island differences. The highest adherence was observed among wealthier women with generally healthier lifestyle choices. The most significant mainland–island differences were observed for lifestyle and socioeconomic factors (income, education, physical activity). The machine learning approach confirmed the findings of the conventional statistical method. We can conclude that adverse socioeconomic and lifestyle conditions were more pronounced in the island population, which, together with the observed non-Mediterranean dietary pattern, calls for more effective intervention strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; Dalmatian islands; pregnancy; CRIBS cohort; socioeconomic factors; lifestyle; machine learning; random forest; nutrition Mediterranean diet; Dalmatian islands; pregnancy; CRIBS cohort; socioeconomic factors; lifestyle; machine learning; random forest; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Havaš Auguštin, D.; Šarac, J.; Lovrić, M.; Živković, J.; Malev, O.; Fuchs, N.; Novokmet, N.; Turkalj, M.; Missoni, S. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Maternal Lifestyle during Pregnancy: Island–Mainland Differentiation in the CRIBS Birth Cohort. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2179. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082179

AMA Style

Havaš Auguštin D, Šarac J, Lovrić M, Živković J, Malev O, Fuchs N, Novokmet N, Turkalj M, Missoni S. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Maternal Lifestyle during Pregnancy: Island–Mainland Differentiation in the CRIBS Birth Cohort. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2179. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082179

Chicago/Turabian Style

Havaš Auguštin, Dubravka, Jelena Šarac, Mario Lovrić, Jelena Živković, Olga Malev, Nives Fuchs, Natalija Novokmet, Mirjana Turkalj, and Saša Missoni. 2020. "Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Maternal Lifestyle during Pregnancy: Island–Mainland Differentiation in the CRIBS Birth Cohort" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2179. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082179

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