Next Article in Journal
The Delineation of Paleo-Shorelines in the Lake Manyara Basin Using TerraSAR-X Data
Previous Article in Journal
Habitat Classification of Temperate Marine Macroalgal Communities Using Bathymetric LiDAR
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(3), 2176-2194;

Evaluating the Potentials of Sentinel-2 for Archaeological Perspective

Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics, Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cyprus University of Technology, Saripolou 2-8, Limassol 3603, Cyprus
Laboratory of Geophysical-Satellite Remote Sensing & Archaeoenvironment, Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas (F.O.R.T.H.), Nik. Foka 130, Rethymno, Crete 74100, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Full-Text   |   PDF [1259 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


The potentials of the forthcoming new European Space Agency’s (ESA) satellite sensor, Sentinel-2, for archaeological studies was examined in this paper. For this reason, an extensive spectral library of crop marks, acquired through numerous spectroradiometric campaigns, which are related with buried archaeological remains, has been resampled to the spectral characteristics of Sentinel-2. In addition, other existing satellite sensors have been also evaluated (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM); Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER); IKONOS; Landsat 4 TM; Landsat 7 Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+); QuickBird; Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT); and WorldView-2). The simulated data have been compared with the optimum spectral regions for the detection of crop marks (700 nm and 800 nm). In addition, several existing vegetation indices have been also assessed for all sensors. As it was found, the spectral characteristics of Sentinel-2 are able to better distinguish crop marks compared to other existing satellite sensors. Indeed, as it was found, using a simulated Sentinel-2 image, not only known buried archaeological sites were able to be detected, but also other still unknown sites were able to be revealed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-2; crop marks; Archaeological Index; archaeology; remote sensing archaeology Sentinel-2; crop marks; Archaeological Index; archaeology; remote sensing archaeology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Agapiou, A.; Alexakis, D.D.; Sarris, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.G. Evaluating the Potentials of Sentinel-2 for Archaeological Perspective. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 2176-2194.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top