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Article

Modelling and Assessment of Single-Frequency PPP Time Transfer with BDS-3 B1I and B1C Observations

1
College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266000, China
2
School of Marine Science and Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
3
Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pinleyuan, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100124, China
4
National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710600, China
5
School of Remote Sensing and Geomatics Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Augusto Mazzoni, Chung-yen Kuo and Qile Zhao
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(5), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051146
Received: 20 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 21 February 2022 / Published: 25 February 2022
BDS-3 is now providing global positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) services. BDS-3 has new B1C, B2a and B2b signals compared to BDS-2. This work presents two single-frequency (SF) PPP time transfer models using BDS-3, B1C and B1I observations, and studies the performance of BDS-3 SF PPP time transfer by using 30-day data of 10 globally distributed stations from a multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX). We found that the ionospheric constraint SF PPP (SF1) time transfer model outperforms the method of SF PPP with the receiver clock offset at first epoch as the datum (SF2). Importantly, the statistical uncertainty of SF1 was less than 1 nanosecond, with (0.75, 0.71) ns in the average scheme for all time-links, using both B1I and B1C observations, respectively. The frequency stability of SF1 with B1C observations was improved from 1.73% to 13.04% in the short-term and from 0.88% to 17.49% in the long term, compared to that of B1I for all time-links. Hence, SF1 with B1C observations was recommended for SF PPP time transfer. View Full-Text
Keywords: BDS-3; time transfer; single-frequency; B1I and B1C BDS-3; time transfer; single-frequency; B1I and B1C
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, S.; Ge, Y.; Meng, X.; Shen, P.; Wang, K.; Ke, F. Modelling and Assessment of Single-Frequency PPP Time Transfer with BDS-3 B1I and B1C Observations. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051146

AMA Style

Wang S, Ge Y, Meng X, Shen P, Wang K, Ke F. Modelling and Assessment of Single-Frequency PPP Time Transfer with BDS-3 B1I and B1C Observations. Remote Sensing. 2022; 14(5):1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051146

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Shengli, Yulong Ge, Xiaolin Meng, Pengli Shen, Kaidi Wang, and Fuyang Ke. 2022. "Modelling and Assessment of Single-Frequency PPP Time Transfer with BDS-3 B1I and B1C Observations" Remote Sensing 14, no. 5: 1146. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051146

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