Next Article in Journal
Fusion of MODIS and Landsat-Like Images for Daily High Spatial Resolution NDVI
Next Article in Special Issue
Longitudinal, Lateral, Vertical, and Temporal Thermal Heterogeneity in a Large Impounded River: Implications for Cold-Water Refuges
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of UAV Flight Missions in Steep Terrain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inferring Surface Flow Velocities in Sediment-Laden Alaskan Rivers from Optical Image Sequences Acquired from a Helicopter
Open AccessArticle

Near-Field Remote Sensing of Surface Velocity and River Discharge Using Radars and the Probability Concept at 10 U.S. Geological Survey Streamgages

1
U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Box 25046, MS 415, Denver, CO 80225, USA
2
Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, 724 Field Club Rd, Pittsburgh, PA 15238, USA
3
IRPI-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Research Institute for Hydrogeological Protection, National Research Council, via della Madonna Alta 126, 06128 Perugia, Italy
4
NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, National Weather Center, 120 David L. Boren Blvd., Norman, OK 73072 USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(8), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12081296
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 17 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
Near-field remote sensing of surface velocity and river discharge (discharge) were measured using coherent, continuous wave Doppler and pulsed radars. Traditional streamgaging requires sensors be deployed in the water column; however, near-field remote sensing has the potential to transform streamgaging operations through non-contact methods in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and other agencies around the world. To differentiate from satellite or high-altitude platforms, near-field remote sensing is conducted from fixed platforms such as bridges and cable stays. Radar gages were collocated with 10 USGS streamgages in river reaches of varying hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics, where basin size ranged from 381 to 66,200 square kilometers. Radar-derived mean-channel (mean) velocity and discharge were computed using the probability concept and were compared to conventional instantaneous measurements and time series. To test the efficacy of near-field methods, radars were deployed for extended periods of time to capture a range of hydraulic conditions and environmental factors. During the operational phase, continuous time series of surface velocity, radar-derived discharge, and stage-discharge were recorded, computed, and transmitted contemporaneously and continuously in real time every 5 to 15 min. Minimum and maximum surface velocities ranged from 0.30 to 3.84 m per second (m/s); minimum and maximum radar-derived discharges ranged from 0.17 to 4890 cubic meters per second (m3/s); and minimum and maximum stage-discharge ranged from 0.12 to 4950 m3/s. Comparisons between radar and stage-discharge time series were evaluated using goodness-of-fit statistics, which provided a measure of the utility of the probability concept to compute discharge from a singular surface velocity and cross-sectional area relative to conventional methods. Mean velocity and discharge data indicate that velocity radars are highly correlated with conventional methods and are a viable near-field remote sensing technology that can be operationalized to deliver real-time surface velocity, mean velocity, and discharge. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface velocity; river discharge; Doppler radar; pulsed radar; probability concept surface velocity; river discharge; Doppler radar; pulsed radar; probability concept
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Fulton, J.W.; Mason, C.A.; Eggleston, J.R.; Nicotra, M.J.; Chiu, C.-L.; Henneberg, M.F.; Best, H.R.; Cederberg, J.R.; Holnbeck, S.R.; Lotspeich, R.R.; Laveau, C.D.; Moramarco, T.; Jones, M.E.; Gourley, J.J.; Wasielewski, D. Near-Field Remote Sensing of Surface Velocity and River Discharge Using Radars and the Probability Concept at 10 U.S. Geological Survey Streamgages. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1296.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop