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Open AccessArticle

Accounting for Surface Roughness Scattering in the Characterization of Forest Litter with Ground-Penetrating Radar

1
Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
2
Agrosphere (IBG-3), Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070828
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Ground Penetrating Radar Remote Sensing)
Accurate characterization of forest litter is of high interest for land surface modeling and for interpreting remote sensing observations over forested areas. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity of forest litter, scattering from litter layers has to be considered when sensed using microwave techniques. Here, we apply a full-waveform radar model combined with a surface roughness model to ultrawideband ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data acquired above forest litter during controlled and in situ experiments. For both experiments, the proposed modeling approach successfully described the radar data, with improvements compared to a previous study in which roughness was not directly accounted for. Inversion of the GPR data also provided reliable estimates of the relative dielectric permittivity of the recently fallen litter (OL layer) and of the fragmented litter in partial decomposition (OF layer) with, respectively, averaged values of 1.35 and 3.8 for the controlled experiment and of 3.9 and 7.5 for the in situ experiment. These results show the promising potentialities of GPR for efficient and non-invasive characterization of forest organic layers. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest litter; frequency dependence; ground-penetrating radar (GPR); roughness; scattering forest litter; frequency dependence; ground-penetrating radar (GPR); roughness; scattering
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MDPI and ACS Style

André, F.; Jonard, F.; Jonard, M.; Vereecken, H.; Lambot, S. Accounting for Surface Roughness Scattering in the Characterization of Forest Litter with Ground-Penetrating Radar. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 828.

AMA Style

André F, Jonard F, Jonard M, Vereecken H, Lambot S. Accounting for Surface Roughness Scattering in the Characterization of Forest Litter with Ground-Penetrating Radar. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(7):828.

Chicago/Turabian Style

André, Frédéric; Jonard, François; Jonard, Mathieu; Vereecken, Harry; Lambot, Sébastien. 2019. "Accounting for Surface Roughness Scattering in the Characterization of Forest Litter with Ground-Penetrating Radar" Remote Sens. 11, no. 7: 828.

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