Next Article in Journal
Geospatial Object Detection on High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery Based on Double Multi-Scale Feature Pyramid Network
Previous Article in Journal
Time Series High-Resolution Land Surface Albedo Estimation Based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter Algorithm
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficient Numerical Full-Polarized Facet-Based Model for EM Scattering from Rough Sea Surface within a Wide Frequency Range
Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Ku- and Ka-Band Sea Surface Backscattering Characteristics at Low-Incidence Angles Based on the GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar Measurements

by Qiushuang Yan 1,3, Jie Zhang 1,2,3, Chenqing Fan 1,2,* and Junmin Meng 1,2
1
First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
2
Oceanic telemetry Engineering and Technology Research Center, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
3
School of Earth Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070754
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Remote Sensing of Oceans and Coastal Areas)
The co-located normalized radar backscatter cross section measurements from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ku/Ka-band dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and sea surface wind; wave and temperature observations from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) moored buoys are used to analyze the dependence and sensitivity of Ku- and Ka-band backscatter on surface conditions at low-incidence angles. Then the potential for inverting wind and wave parameters directly from low-incidence σ0 measurements is discussed. The results show that the KaPR σ0 is more sensitive to surface conditions than the KuPR σ0 overall. Nevertheless; both the KuPR σ0 and KaPR σ0 are strongly correlated with wind speed (U10) and average wave steepness (δa) with the exception of specific transitional incidence angles. Moreover, U10 and δa could be retrieved from pointwise σ0 near nadir and near 18°. Near 18°; wind direction information is needed as the effect of wind direction on σ0 becomes increasingly significant with incidence angle. To improve the performance of U10 retrieval; especially for low U10; auxiliary δa information would be most helpful; and sea surface temperature is better taken into account. Other wave parameters; such as significant wave height; wave period and wave age; are partly correlated with σ0. It is generally more difficult to retrieve those parameters directly from pointwise σ0. For the retrieval of those wave parameters; various auxiliary information is needed. Wind direction and wave direction cannot be retrieved from pointwise σ0. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPM DPR cross section; low-incidence remote sensing; sea surface; radar signal analysis GPM DPR cross section; low-incidence remote sensing; sea surface; radar signal analysis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, Q.; Zhang, J.; Fan, C.; Meng, J. Analysis of Ku- and Ka-Band Sea Surface Backscattering Characteristics at Low-Incidence Angles Based on the GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar Measurements. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 754.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop