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Open AccessArticle

Variability of the Great Whirl and Its Impacts on Atmospheric Processes

by Sen Wang 1,2, Weijun Zhu 1,3,4, Jing Ma 3,4, Jinlin Ji 5, Jingsong Yang 2 and Changming Dong 6,7,*
1
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou 310012, China
3
Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
4
Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
5
College of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
6
School of Marine Science, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
7
Southern Laboratory of Ocean Science and Engineering, Zhuhai 519000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030322
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Using satellite remote sensing data and re-analysis products for the period of 1993–2015, the variation of a large anticyclonic eddy, the so-called Great Whirl (GW), located in the Northwest Indian Ocean off the coast of Somali, and its impacts on atmosphere were investigated. The GW is generated in early summer and decays in late fall every year. The center of the GW is located at 7.73°N, 53.20°E. The mean lifetime, sea level anomaly (SLA) difference, sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), radius, normalized vorticity, eddy kinetic energy (EKE), and deformation rate are 169 days, 0.07 m, 0.83 °C, 116.86 km, −0.53, 0.08 m 2 · s 2 , and 0.58, respectively. All these variables exhibit interannual variations. Composite analyses show that the maximum values of sea surface temperature (SST), wind, and water vapor anomalies occur in the northwest of the GW center. The fitting coefficient between the SST and wind speed anomaly is 1.1, indicating that, corresponding to 1 °C increases of the SST, the wind speed increases by about 1.1 m · s 1 , and the fitting coefficient between the SST and water vapor anomaly is 0.45, indicating that water vapor increases by about 0.45 mm in response to 1 °C increases in the SST. In the vertical direction, the maximum and minimum values of vertical velocity anomalies and vertical transport of transient zonal momentum occur over the GW at about 900 hPa, and wind speed anomalies occur at about 950 hPa. Both the positive transport anomalies of transient zonal momentum and the positive vertical velocity anomalies on the west side of the GW can accelerate the wind speed in the lower level. View Full-Text
Keywords: Northwest Indian Ocean; the Great Whirl; interannual variability; atmospheric responses to the Great Whirl Northwest Indian Ocean; the Great Whirl; interannual variability; atmospheric responses to the Great Whirl
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Wang, S.; Zhu, W.; Ma, J.; Ji, J.; Yang, J.; Dong, C. Variability of the Great Whirl and Its Impacts on Atmospheric Processes. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 322.

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