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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11020138

Earth Observations-Based Evapotranspiration in Northeastern Thailand

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration (ET))
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Abstract

Thailand is characterized by typical tropical monsoon climate, and is suffering serious water related problems, including seasonal drought and flooding. These issues are highly related to the hydrological processes, e.g., precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET), which are helpful to understand and cope with these problems. It is critical to study the spatiotemporal pattern of ET in Thailand to support the local water resource management. In the current study, daily ET was estimated over Thailand by ETMonitor, a process-based model, with mainly satellite earth observation datasets as input. One major advantage of the ETMonitor algorithm is that it introduces the impact of soil moisture on ET by assimilating the surface soil moisture from microwave remote sensing, and it reduces the dependence on land surface temperature, as the thermal remote sensing is highly sensitive to cloud, which limits the ability to achieve spatial and temporal continuity of daily ET. The ETMonitor algorithm was further improved in current study to take advantage of thermal remote sensing. In the improved scheme, the evaporation fraction was first obtained by land surface temperature—vegetation index triangle method, which was used to estimate ET in the clear days. The soil moisture stress index (SMSI) was defined to express the constrain of soil moisture on ET, and clear sky SMSI was retrieved according to the estimated clear sky ET. Clear sky SMSI was then interpolated to cloudy days to obtain the SMSI for all sky conditions. Finally, time-series ET at daily resolution was achieved using the interpolated spatio-temporal continuous SMSI. Good agreements were found between the estimated daily ET and flux tower observations with root mean square error ranging between 1.08 and 1.58 mm d−1, which showed better accuracy than the ET product from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), especially for the forest sites. Chi and Mun river basins, located in Northeast Thailand, were selected to analyze the spatial pattern of ET. The results indicate that the ET had large fluctuation in seasonal variation, which is predominantly impacted by the monsoon climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: ET; Thailand; ETMonitor; land surface temperature; Mun river basin; Chi river basin ET; Thailand; ETMonitor; land surface temperature; Mun river basin; Chi river basin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zheng, C.; Jia, L.; Hu, G.; Lu, J. Earth Observations-Based Evapotranspiration in Northeastern Thailand. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 138.

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