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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11020114

A Patch-Based Light Convolutional Neural Network for Land-Cover Mapping Using Landsat-8 Images

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract

This study proposes a light convolutional neural network (LCNN) well-fitted for medium-resolution (30-m) land-cover classification. The LCNN attains high accuracy without overfitting, even with a small number of training samples, and has lower computational costs due to its much lighter design compared to typical convolutional neural networks for high-resolution or hyperspectral image classification tasks. The performance of the LCNN was compared to that of a deep convolutional neural network, support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and random forest (RF). SVM, KNN, and RF were tested with both patch-based and pixel-based systems. Three 30 km × 30 km test sites of the Level II National Land Cover Database were used for reference maps to embrace a wide range of land-cover types, and a single-date Landsat-8 image was used for each test site. To evaluate the performance of the LCNN according to the sample sizes, we varied the sample size to include 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 samples per class. The proposed LCNN achieved the highest accuracy in 13 out of 15 cases (i.e., at three test sites with five different sample sizes), and the LCNN with a patch size of three produced the highest overall accuracy of 61.94% from 10 repetitions, followed by SVM (61.51%) and RF (61.15%) with a patch size of three. Also, the statistical significance of the differences between LCNN and the other classifiers was reported. Moreover, by introducing the heterogeneity value (from 0 to 8) representing the complexity of the map, we demonstrated the advantage of patch-based LCNN over pixel-based classifiers, particularly at moderately heterogeneous pixels (from 1 to 4), with respect to accuracy (LCNN is 5.5% and 6.3% more accurate for a training sample size of 20 and 320 samples per class, respectively). Finally, the computation times of the classifiers were calculated, and the LCNN was confirmed to have an advantage in large-area mapping. View Full-Text
Keywords: convolutional neural network; land-cover mapping; Landsat; patch-based classification; medium-resolution; map heterogeneity convolutional neural network; land-cover mapping; Landsat; patch-based classification; medium-resolution; map heterogeneity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Song, H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y. A Patch-Based Light Convolutional Neural Network for Land-Cover Mapping Using Landsat-8 Images. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 114.

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