Sea ice is one of the causes of marine disasters. The classification of sea ice images is an important part of sea ice detection. The labeled samples in hyperspectral sea ice image classification are difficult to acquire, which causes minor sample problems. In addition, most of the current sea ice classification methods mainly use spectral features for shallow learning, which also limits further improvement of the sea ice classification accuracy. Therefore, this paper proposes a hyperspectral sea ice image classification method based on the spectral-spatial-joint feature with deep learning. The proposed method first extracts sea ice texture information by the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Then, it performs dimensionality reduction and a correlation analysis of the spectral information and spatial information of the unlabeled samples, respectively. It eliminates redundant information by extracting the spectral-spatial information of the neighboring unlabeled samples of the labeled sample and integrating the information with the spectral and texture data of the labeled sample to further enhance the quality of the labeled sample. Lastly, the three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) model is designed to extract the deep spectral-spatial features of sea ice. The proposed method combines relevant textural features and performs spectral-spatial feature extraction based on the 3D-CNN model by using a large amount of unlabeled sample information. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, sea ice classification experiments are carried out on two hyperspectral data sets: Baffin Bay and Bohai Bay. Compared with the CNN algorithm based on a single feature (spectral or spatial) and other CNN algorithms based on spectral-spatial features, the experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better sea ice classification (98.52% and 97.91%) with small samples. Therefore, it is more suitable for classifying hyperspectral sea ice images.
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