The frequent fine-scale monitoring of deforestation using satellite sensors is important for the sustainable management of forests. Traditional optical satellite sensors suffer from cloud interruption, particularly in tropical regions, and recent active microwave sensors (i.e., synthetic aperture radar) demonstrate the difficulty in data interpretation owing to their inherent sensor noise and complicated backscatter features of forests. Although the sensor integration of optical and microwave sensors is of compelling research interest, particularly in the conduct of deforestation monitoring, this topic has not been widely studied. In this paper, we introduce an operational algorithm for automated deforestation mapping using long-term optical and L-band SAR data, including a simple time-series analysis of Landsat stacks and a multilayered neural network with Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer and Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2, followed by sensor integration based on the Bayesian Updating of Land-Cover. We applied the algorithm over a deciduous tropical forest in Cambodia in 2003–2018 for validation, and the algorithm demonstrated better accuracy than existing approaches, which only depend on optical data or SAR data. Owing to the cloud penetration ability of SAR, observation gaps of optical data under cloudy conditions were filled, resulting in a prompter detection of deforestation even in the tropical rainy season. We also investigated the effect of posterior probability constraints in the Bayesian approach. The land-cover maps (forest/deforestation) created by the well-tuned Bayesian approach achieved 94.0% ± 4.5%, 80.0% ± 10.1%, and 96.4% ± 1.9% for the user’s accuracy, producer’s accuracy, and overall accuracy, respectively. In the future, small-scale commission errors in the resultant maps should be improved by using more sophisticated machine-learning approaches and considering the reforestation effects in the algorithm. The application of the algorithm to other landscapes with other sensor combinations is also desirable.
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