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Open AccessArticle

Validation of 7 Years in-Flight HY-2A Calibration Microwave Radiometer Products Using Numerical Weather Model and Radiosondes

1
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
2
First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), Qingdao 266061, China
3
Department of Geodesy, GeoForschungZentrum (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
4
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universitat Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(13), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11131616
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Navigation Satellite Systems for Earth Observing System)
Haiyang-2A (HY-2A) has been working in-flight for over seven years, and the accuracy of HY-2A calibration microwave radiometer (CMR) data is extremely important for the wet troposphere delay correction (WTC) in sea surface height (SSH) determination. We present a comprehensive evaluation of the HY-2A CMR observation using the numerical weather model (NWM) for all the data available period from October 2011 to February 2018, including the WTC and the precipitable water vapor (PWV). The ERA(ECMWF Re-Analysis)-Interim products from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used for the validation of HY-2A WTC and PWV products. In general, a global agreement of root-mean-square (RMS) of 2.3 cm in WTC and 3.6 mm in PWV are demonstrated between HY-2A observation and ERA-Interim products. Systematic biases are revealed where before 2014 there was a positive WTC/PWV bias and after that, a negative one. Spatially, HY-2A CMR products show a larger bias in polar regions compared with mid-latitude regions and tropical regions and agree better in the Antarctic than in the Arctic with NWM. Moreover, HY-2A CMR products have larger biases in the coastal area, which are all caused by the brightness temperature (TB) contamination from land or sea ice. Temporally, the WTC/PWV biases increase from October 2011 to March 2014 with a systematic bias over 1 cm in WTC and 2 mm in PWV, and the maximum RMS values of 4.62 cm in WTC and 7.61 mm in PWV occur in August 2013, which is because of the unsuitable retrieval coefficients and systematic TB measurements biases from 37 GHz band. After April 2014, the TB bias is corrected, HY-2A CMR products agree very well with NWM from April 2014 to May 2017 with the average RMS of 1.68 cm in WTC and 2.65 mm in PWV. However, since June 2017, TB measurements from the 18.7 GHz band become unstable, which led to the huge differences between HY-2A CMR products and the NWM with an average RMS of 2.62 cm in WTC and 4.33 mm in PWV. HY-2A CMR shows high accuracy when three bands work normally and further calibration for HY-2A CMR is in urgent need. Furtherly, 137 global coastal radiosonde stations were used to validate HY-2A CMR. The validation based on radiosonde data shows the same variation trend in time of HY-2A CMR compared to the results from ECMWF, which verifies the results from ECMWF. View Full-Text
Keywords: HY-2A CMR; numerical weather model; wet tropospheric correction; precipitable water vapor; brightness temperature; radiosondes HY-2A CMR; numerical weather model; wet tropospheric correction; precipitable water vapor; brightness temperature; radiosondes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, Z.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; He, X.; Liu, Y.; Xu, W. Validation of 7 Years in-Flight HY-2A Calibration Microwave Radiometer Products Using Numerical Weather Model and Radiosondes. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1616.

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