Next Article in Journal
Mapping Population Distribution from High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery in a Data Poor Setting
Next Article in Special Issue
Underground Object Classification for Urban Roads Using Instantaneous Phase Analysis of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Data
Previous Article in Journal
Investigation of the Fetch Effect Using Onshore and Offshore Vertical LiDAR Devices
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1410;

A Microwave Tomography Strategy for Underwater Imaging via Ground Penetrating Radar

Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council of Italy, I-80124 Napoli, Italy
Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council of Italy, I-85050 Tito (PZ), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Ground Penetrating Radar Remote Sensing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6640 KB, uploaded 5 September 2018]   |  


Detection and monitoring of underwater structures is one of the most challenging applicative scenarios for remote sensing diagnostic techniques, among which ground penetrating radar (GPR). With this aim, an imaging strategy belonging to the family of microwave tomographic approaches is proposed herein. This strategy allows the imaging of objects located into a wet sand medium below a freshwater layer and it can find application in investigation of lakes, rivers, and hydraulic structures. The proposed strategy accounts for the layered structure of the scenario under test by exploiting a spatially variable equivalent permittivity in the inverse scattering model. This allows a reliable reconstruction of depth and horizontal size of underwater hidden objects. The imaging capabilities of the strategy are verified by processing experimental data referred to a laboratory environment reproducing a submerged archeological site at scale 1:1. The results are compared with those obtained by modelling the reference scenario as a homogeneous medium, in order to verify the effective improvement in terms of reconstruction accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPR; microwave tomography; radar imaging; bathymetry; underwater structures GPR; microwave tomography; radar imaging; bathymetry; underwater structures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ludeno, G.; Capozzoli, L.; Rizzo, E.; Soldovieri, F.; Catapano, I. A Microwave Tomography Strategy for Underwater Imaging via Ground Penetrating Radar. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1410.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top